Tag Archives: Experience

Service Design for Policymaking: Challenges for Delivering Value and Experience to Citizens (Published)

This theoretical paper aims to discuss and argue the design approach roles and challenges in the public sector to deliver value and experiences of public services to citizens. This technique seeks to approach government and civil servants, who design and plan public policies, to the citizens who receive them in services. Service design encourages governments to shift from ‘designing from the inside out’ to ‘designing from the outside in’. The service design approach tries to balance the desired changes of a government with the desires of the citizens to achieve two goals: (i) decreasing inconsistency of services; and (ii) increasing results in terms of service value and experience for citizens. However, for deploying an agile methodology as service design, governments and civil servants must overcome bureaucratic processes, regulations and lack of skills in innovation practices to reach the citizens’ needs.

Keywords: Experience, Government, Public Services, Service design, value creation

Experience Era & Marketing 4.0: The Four Primary Marketer’ Roles (Published)

This theoretical paper aims to approach the ‘new’ era in which experience and content marketing are integrated to add value to the customer, the key elements for customer experience management programmes and primary roles for marketers to become innovators. Over three decades marketing practices have transformed and absorbed innovation techniques to understand customer’s behaviour, improve services quality and gain customer satisfaction and loyalty. Then, experience, contents, data-driven, customer journey, service design, digital technologies and agile methodologies were included in the marketing vocabulary. Marketers became innovators inasmuch they need to handle and integrate these concepts, techniques, methodologies, and technologies. In general, four new roles have required marketers, such as Scientist, Strategist, Storybuilders and Socialisers performing in cross-organizational teams as well as multichannel platforms. Marketers have pushed for design and organising outstanding experiences to engage customers to share their energy, passion and contagious enthusiasm for products, services, or brands.

Keywords: Content, Customer, Experience, Innovation, marketer

Evaluation on the Implementation of Continuous Professional Development Program: The Case of EFL Teachers (Published)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of Continuous Professional Development program the case of EFL teachers. The study investigated the attitude of teachers towards CPD program, the role of CPD in terms of delivering new knowledge and experience, the leadership support in promoting CPD and the major impediments for the implementation of CPD. The subjects of the study were 18 EFL teachers from selected Secondary schools. In addition, high schools directors and supervisors were also involved in the study. The data was collected through four tools: reflective writing, focus group discussion, interview and document analysis. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and case study method was employed. The findings of the study revealed that there is a great difference between the teachers’ beliefs and actual experiences in the practice of CPD. The study suggested that lots of challenges impede the proper implementation of CPD. Among them are heavy work load, lack of appropriate training facilities to practice CPD, shortage of financial and expert support, poor management of the program and poor initiatives to implement knowledge and awareness gained in the CPD program. Hence, it is recommended that to enhance the practice of CPD activity, teachers should get plenty of training opportunities to experience their professional activity.  Moreover, financial and expert support should be given due attention to improve the current status of CPD. 

Keywords: Continuous Professional Development, Evaluation, Experience, Leadership

Awareness and Experience of School Library Usage among Undergraduate Students: A Review of the Literature (Published)

Tertiary institutions have academic libraries attached to them with the mandate to preserve and provide access to knowledge and information and support the mission of their parent institutions but before getting introduced to the academic library, users must have passed through a primary and secondary school expected to have a school library. The mission and goal of a typical school library is to ensure that students and staff are able to use ideas and information of the school library media center and have equitable access to books, reading space, information, and information technology. This is expected to help prepare students to live and learn in a world of information and their perception of the school library, its image, services and importance, which goes a long way in making them lifelong learners and potential users of other library types. Ironically, one still finds in Nigeria, some primary and secondary schools being run without libraries. This paper therefore discussed the extent of school library awareness and experience and its possible effects on the library usage by undergraduate students. Specifically, it discussed school library awareness and experience as well as library usage among the undergraduate students; and concluded on the extent to which school library awareness and experience are determinants of library usage among undergraduate students

Keywords: Academic Library, Experience, School library., Undergraduate Students, awareness, library usage

Gender Experiences, Teacher Qualification and Students Outcome in English Language among Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan (Published)

This study examines the relationship between gender experiences and teachers qualification on academic outcome in English language among senior secondary school students in Ibadan. The study adopted descriptive research design while the population is the whole secondary school students in Ibadan. It also adopts Simple random sampling techniques to select one hundred and fifty (150) secondary school students and one hundred and fifty (150) teachers of senior secondary school students totaling three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaires were the main instruments used for data collection in this study. The questionnaire tagged Gender and Academic Experience Questionnaire (GAEQ) and Teachers Qualification Questionnaire (TQQ). The instrument was validated by the researcher and pilot tested within two weeks which was later yielded r=0.72 and r=0.76 using alpha Cronbach reliability estimation. Based on this research finding, the following recommendations were made that; the individual differences of the learners should be taken care of based on their gender differences as regard their academic pursuit and the teacher of English language should try as much as possible to update themselves by attending seminars and conferences in order to acquire modern skills for their profession/discipline among others.

Keywords: English language and student’s-outcome, Experience, Gender, Students, Teacher, teacher’s qualification

A New Dawn in Etche Names: A Cultural Threat (Published)

The paper investigates anthroponym- a type of onomastics in Etche. Anthroponym which is the study of personal names including their forms and uses is described differently cross-culturally. Using a descriptive research design, the paper describes one hundred and three (103) Etche personal names categorised into three broad socio-cultural groups: experience, theophoric and admonitory/salutary. Contrary to the Americans and Europeans belief that given names are mere tags and mark of identity, the paper holds that in Etche as it is in most African nations and Nigeria in particular, given names describe the world of the name givers and control the world of the name bearers. The paper therefore concludes that the dawn of a new naming system in Etche is an affront on the culture of the people and portends a great danger to the unborn generation

Keywords: Admonitory, Anthroponym, Culture, Experience, Name, Onomastics, Theophoric

An Evaluation of the English Teachers’ Guides of the Secondary Cycle in Saudi Arabia (Published)

The study was an attempt to evaluate the teachers’ Guides (TGs) of the first and second secondary classes in Saudi Arabia. Secondary TEFL teachers’ views were investigated towards these TGs used by the teachers to answer the following questions: (1) What are TEFL secondary teachers’ views about the TGs in terms of the following dimensions? (2) Do the TEFL secondary teachers’ views vary with respect to English teaching experience and qualification? The sample of the study consisted of 160 teachers in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia who teach the first and second secondary classes. To achieve the purpose of the study, the researcher developed a questionnaire including 40 questions within eight subscales. The researcher used means, standard deviations and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to describe and analyze the teachers’ views about the questionnaire. The results of the study revealed that the teachers’ views about the TGs were negative, i.e., the TGs were of insignificant help to teachers in the teaching process. In addition the two-way ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant differences in the teachers’ views due to teaching experience and qualification. The results of the study also indicated that the TGs did not contribute to developing teachers’ awareness of English language teaching theory and principles. The TGs lacked an introduction describing the objectives of the teaching materials. They did not provide linguistic and cultural information and they did not also help teachers through suggestions and procedural guidance to deal with contents of the teaching materials and unpredictable problems affecting the teaching process. In light of the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that the Ministry of Education provide TGs which mainly contribute to developing teachers’ knowledge and understanding of the English language teaching theory and principles. Moreover, the researcher recommended that the Ministry provide TGs including the general objectives of the teaching materials and specification of the objectives for each unit. It is also recommended that TEFL researchers conduct further studies investigating teachers’ views about the TGs in other regions of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, they were recommended to evaluate the TGs of the basic stage and investigate the TEFL teachers’ attitudes towards the effectiveness and usefulness of the TGs.

Keywords: Experience, Objectives, TGS, Teachers' Guide

Joyce’s “Araby”: From Innocence to Experience (Published)

ABSTRACT: James Joyce’s short story “Araby depicts an adolescent boy’s experience of the bleakness of reality gained through the loss of innocence. The boy undergoes the tribulations of real life while in quest of ideal beauty, love and romance. The story opens with a description of the Dublin neighbourhood–the ‘blind’ North Richmond Street at the end of which the boy lives with his uncle and aunt in an uninhabited house in conservative Catholic cultures. All these are intimated with dismal surroundings suggesting disappointment from the very outset. This gloomy and dreary atmosphere narrows down the boy’s world and confines his spirit. Everywhere in his dark surroundings, the lonely, imaginative, and isolated boy seeks the ‘light’ and a relish of romance. Into this world of darkness appears a girl, Mangan’s sister. To the boy, the girl is the embodiment of romance and ideal beauty. She is the light in his romantic fantasy, someone who will lift him out of darkness he believes. But, when he is entrapped in physical attraction with her, the girl becomes a threat to the boy’s religious faith and likewise leads him away from a state of innocence because Dublin is “a place of asceticism where desire and sensuality are seen as immoral”1. The boy, however, wishes to win her over by bringing her a gift from an oriental bazaar, Araby, which, to his young heart, is also an epitome of ideal beauty and romantic grandeur. As the boy is growing up, the bazaar gets emblematic for the difficulty of the adult world in which the boy fails to navigate. His dreams crumble. This Araby, like a silent assassin, devours his all fancies and yearnings. He experiences a shattering epiphany, his boyish fantasies are dashed by the grim realities of life in Dublin and consequently he develops a new perspective on life. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to substantiate how a young boy gains experience through the loss of his innocence.

KEYWORDS:  Araby, Adolescence, Disillusionment, Experience, Innocence, Love


Keywords: Adolescence, Araby, Disillusionment, Experience, Innocence, Love

The Competency and Independency Auditors to Audit Quality at Auditors of Public Accountant in Palembang (Published)

This study aims to test the competency and independency of the Auditor on the Quality Audit Office Public Accountant Auditor Palembang. The study sample as many as 39 registered Public Accountants in Palembang, used multiple regression analysis. The results of calculations using SPSS, showed that:1) R2 of  0.499, illustrates that the quality of the audit, can be explained by the dependent variables amounted to 49.9%, while the remaining 51,1%, can be explained by other factors, which are not included in this study. ;2) Obtained value of F(7.309) Sig(0,000), means that there is a significant influence of dependent variables together to quality audit; 3) there are no significant effect from experience, knowledge, and non audit services on the quality of audit; 4) and there are  significant effect of long relationships with clients, pressure from clients, and review co-auditors on audit quality.


Keywords: Audit Quality, Experience, Knowledge, Non-audit services, long relationships with clients, pressure from clients, review co-auditor

Christianity and Politics: The Experience from Nigeria (Published)

Either directly or indirectly Christians involve themselves in politics. Today, the church interacts regularly with politics or with politicians and governments in three broad areas – in the articulation of its social teaching, in discussions arising from its involvement in schools, hospitals and welfare and in debate over particular moral issues as they arise from time to time. However, there is a common saying in the Christian fold, whether or not a true Christian should participate in politics by vying for a political post. Therefore, this study explores who is a Christian, Christian perspective on politics, reasons why Christians should be involved in politics and effect of Christian virtues in political system. The study concluded that politics is the thought, purpose and intention of God and the will of God for believers to participate in politics. Perhaps, the believer will be able to impart the lifestyle of God over the nation. People should not see politics as blight or bad, it should be admitted that politics in any form is not bad but the political players are bad.

Keywords: Christianity, Experience, Nigeria, Politics

Evolution and Growth of Pakistani-Owned Smes in the Area of Bedfordshire London (Published)

This paper was aimed to investigate those factors which had played an important role in strategic evolution and growth of Pakistani-owned SMEs in the area of Bedfordshire London. The objective was to discover some facts and figures about business experiences of these firms and make the finding a source of learning and development for other similar enterprises in the UK. The target population (sampling frame) was comprised over 42 firms qualifying criterion of SMEs. While applying purposive (judgement) sampling approach, a representative sample of 7 firms (out of 42 firms) with 18 respondents performing at managerial level was selected to conduct in-depth interviews. A case-based empirical investigation conducted around selected group of companies revealed that a number of factors including families and friends, qualification and experience, well thought-out business decisions, clarity of goals and objectives and dual socialization of entrepreneurs while living and working in Pakistan and the UK had played an important role in strategic evolution and growth of these companies. Analysis of the data confirms the vital importance of these factors in laying a sound foundation of these businesses to evolve and flourish in the UK’s highly competitive business environment. The findings of the study are expected to provide some practical lessons to newly built Pakistani-owned enterprises in the UK in developing and strengthening their businesses to survive, grow and succeed in the market.

Keywords: Dual socialization, EMBs, Education, Experience, Pakistan, SMEs, UK


This research empirically identifies the attitudinal, perceptional difference towards entrepreneurial support provided to technical course students. It is evident that a supportive environment is a determining factor for the technical students’ orientation towards an entrepreneurial career. The objective of this paper is to identify the technical course students’ attitudes towards entrepreneurial support, their personal characteristics, and entrepreneurial experience. Data was collected through questionnaires from 100 students of a private university in India. Simple random sampling was used. The questionnaire administered gathered data like students self-confidence level, supportive systems provided by university, the infrastructure, and the awareness of entrepreneurial facilities provided by the university. The results indicate that, those students with high self-confidence were more likely to take up an entrepreneurial career. It was observed that the infrastructure provided by the university played a significant role in encouraging the entrepreneurial drive in the students.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial infrastructure, Experience, Perceived entrepreneurial support, Self-confidence