Road transport exhaust emissions represent the main sources of atmospheric pollution in urban areas, due to the growing number of vehicles and travelled distances. The study examined determinants of exhaust emission levels based on vehicle engine type and vehicle age and fuel type used at city level. This study adopted an explorative and descriptive research design. The study areas were Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Takoradi and Tamale. An exhaust Gas Analyzer was used to collect exhaust emissions from sample of 1,000 vehicles. The data was analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression to explain the significance of the emissions. The result shows that vehicles older than year 2000 have a 23% to 25% chance of increasing emission pollution compared to cars newer than 2006. Fifteen percent of the sample indicated that the type of fuel contributes to a significant amount of exhaust emission. Comparatively, emissions of CO2, HC and CO from petrol engines are much higher in terms of value than the diesel engines. However, diesel engine produces high NOx compared to petrol engines. Vehicles in Accra and Kumasi produce more emissions than those of other cities. As means of mitigation measure, the regulatory bodies should enforce stringent emission legislation and regulation.
Citation: Seth T. K. Dzokoto, Charles Atombo, Maurice M. Braimah and Abdul-Rahaman Issahaku (2022) Study on Factors Influencing Exhaust Emission Levels in Five Major Cities in Ghana, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.10, No.1 pp.28-44