This is a paper review of the work presented at the Royal Agricultural University, Cirencester, United Kingdom. Using library research and reflection, document, journal papers and content analysis were used to generate data. The Sub Saharan African region covered in the paper is that of seven countries. The paper describes the role of agricultural extension models in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well traces the various extension models currently being developed or implement in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely; the top down approaches; from international institutions/ national governments and participatory approaches/bottom-up that engage farmers in decision making. Currently, there are six basic extension approaches/models in diverse stages of development and implementation in developing countries. These models have been structured in a more analytical way around key themes; top down; participatory; demand-led; group versus individual targeting; private sector and free/paid extension services. The reality is that pluralism of models has been employed in various forms in most countries in Sub-Sahara Africa. The paper critically examined seven models, including National Public Extension Model, Training and Visit (T&V) Extension Model, Private Sector Model, Fee-For-Service Extension Models, Farmer Field School Model, Non-Governmental Organization Extension Model, Commodity Extension and Research Model.
Reflections on Legal Historical Background of Evolution in Cross-Border Civil Proceedings (Published)
In the perspective of business and culture relations, we have created a world in which the boundaries disappear. The international market, communication and other cross-border activities have now become more of a rule than an exception. World markets and numerous transactions have provided us with a whole range of opportunities and advantages. It is no coincidence that minimizing business margins is followed by an increase in the number of disputes in the jurisdiction of different courts. Cross-border disputes have now turned into an extremely delicate topic, especially in the area of competition, intellectual property, producer responsibility and collective lawsuits. In this paper I will elaborate the historical background and evolution of cross-border civil proceedings.
The Man’s Freedom and free will from the Point Of View of Muslim Philosophers (Published)
Freedom is of the fundamental issues related to the human and its social life, which is discussed under different titles. Man is characterized with an independent, wise and free character; the desire and feeling for freedom are inherent; in the road of life, the man is dominated by nothing preventing fulfillment of his will since God created him wise and free. The man’s voluntary evolution indicating its character and talent flourishing represents its freedom. According to Muslim philosophers’ view, the man’s freedom is essential for happiness; this necessity stems from Fitra and is the result of speech and other habits; as he is responsible for its own prosperity or adversity. Freedom, indeed, is the possibility and ability of utilizing and the will’s objective interpretation along being. It is implicitly defined as getting free from bondage and others’ dominance. Social freedom also comes from the authority view in which the man tries to fulfill his will in the society in order to remove existing constraints. Thus, in Islamic view, freedom is realized in three steps of internal freedom (intellectual and mental), external freedom (freedom in will’s objective realization) and social freedom (lack of acquiesce before social idols). Freedom in this interpretation is the divine evolution and forgery, which is non-assignable, nontransferrable and non-granted; further, it is considered as the basic fundamental of personality formation and development of the individual and society.
Evolutionary-Genetic Regularities of Origins of an Economic and Legal Systems Imbalance at a Regional Level (Published)
Issues of economic security enforcement are important for both citizens, agents of economic activity, and bodies of government at all levels of the power vertical. World economy spottiness, acceleration of globalisation processes, sufficiently strengthening world markets competition complicate achieving such goal as economic security guarantee. To accomplish this task successfully it is necessary to combine scholarly based, systematic and coordinated activities of all institutional structures – state power, bodies of local self-government, business community, and social organisations. Despite the measures of economic and legal character taken by the government in the transition period development of a mixed economy in the regions is at the formation stage. Deficiency of effective economic policy and balanced legislative control of these processes resulted in setback in production and, as a consequence, demographic situation decline, as well as intensive interregional migration of population. Moreover, market competition mechanism divided regions depending on the existing economic resources. That is why nowadays there appeared an objective necessity to work out methods of regulating imbalance of economic and legal system to accomplish the task of economic security enforcement and sustainable development of socio-economic processes at a regional level.In the article a number of regularities of the origins of economic and legal systems imbalance at a regional level is determined on the basis of evolutionary-genetic approach. The notion of this phenomenon essence allows anticipating a model of region sustainable development and its economic security guarantee.
This paper attempts tore-examine the evolution of constitutional governments in Nigeria from 1922 to 1999 and identify their impact on National coherence. It examined the patterns and degree of the people’s involvement in these processes of constitution making and development. With emphasis on how coherent these constitution have unified the country. It adapted the historical and content analysis methods for eliciting and analyzing its data. Three research questions were drawn for the study. Among other things, the paper reveals that although, we must remind ourselves that Nigerian federalism was established to secure the country’s unity and progress in the face of strong centrifugal forces. Hence, we can say that the various constitutions have tried to ensure coherence in the country. But most importantly in ensuring sustainable conference, the constitution for the people’ republic must entrench liberty and equity of all within a federal democratic structure in which power responsibility and resources are decentralized.
HISTORY, EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVE (Published)
Various attempts have been made towards tracing the historical development of the discipline of Human Resource Management (HRM). However, these initiatives have largely been concentrated on certain specific periods of time and experiences of specific countries and regions such as Australia, the USA, the UK and Asia (Nankervis et.al, 2011; Kelly, 2003; Ogier, 2003). This paper attempts to document the entire history of the discipline of Human Resource Management from a holistic perspective. The evolution and development of HRM will be traced right from the pre-historic times through to the postmodern world. Major characteristics in the evolution and development of HRM will also be examined and documented.