Tag Archives: Evaluation

Evaluation of General Studies Computer Based Tests in Universities in South West Nigeria (Published)

There are perceived short – comings such as server and power failure, denials of right choice of types of examination, limited CBT centres, problem of state of the students’ computer literacy and accessibility, inadequate computers and internet facilities in some universities.  The study evaluated the general studies computer based tests in Universities in South West Nigeria. The purpose was to ascertain the extent to which the objectives of General Studies programme had been implemented using computer – based test. The research design for this study was a descriptive research of the survey type. The population for the study comprises 60,000 100 level undergraduate students of 2016/2017 academic session and 330 lecturers in GST in both private and public universities. The sample for the study consisted of 1890 respondents made up of 1800 students and 90 lecturers selected through Multistage Sampling Procedure. Three self designed instruments which are used as General Studies Achievement Test (GSTAT), Questionnaire on General Studies Interest Scale (QGSTIS) and Questionnaire for Lecturers on General Studies (QGSTL) were used. Face, Content and Construct validity of the instruments were ensured and the reliability of the instruments was ensured using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis. The reliability coefficients of 0.65, 0.70 and 0.72 were found for GSTAT, QGSTIS and QLGST respectively. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages.  All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study concluded that the students’ attitude to Computer Based Test for General Studies examination was positive and the objectives of general studies using computer based test were achieved and effectively implemented. In view of the findings of this study, it was recommended that both the Public and Private universities should emphasize the use of CBT for General Studies examination since there was positive attitude of students on the use of CBT for GST. Multiple choice tests should be used for setting General Studies examination when Computer Based Tests have been adopted because multiple choice tests are very effective for measuring students’ performance. 

Keywords: Computer Based Test, Evaluation, general studies

Effectiveness of in Service Teachers Training Programmes Offered by DSD at Primary Level in Punjab (Published)

The underlying purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training (ISTT) programmes conducted in Punjab by Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). It further evaluates the strength and weaknesses of the various executed training programmes by DSD within Punjab, Pakistan. The following Quantitative study intends to highlight the various variables which act as a comprehensive tool for the acquisition of expected or desired outcomes. It further states those variables involved which act as a catalyst to bring a significant change within the classroom premises, institutions or working places and the attitudes, methodology and teaching practices of teachers or professionals. For that purpose, surveys were conducted by using questionnaires in various areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using coding and SPSS-16. The conclusion drawn from the data analysis illustrates the positive influence of ISTT within the classroom as well as on individuals. It enables the teachers to identify their strengths and weaknesses as it has been proved as an efficient tool for self-evaluation, self learning and reflection. ISTT also bring change within in the classroom as it enables the teachers to understand the complexity of learning process more explicitly.

Keywords: DSD, Effectiveness, Evaluation, Knowledge, Practices, Skill, attitude, in-service teacher training (ISTT), professional development (PD)

The Role of the Media in Promoting “Elderly Women’s Right to Life” in Tanzania: An Evaluation of “Haki za Binadamu” Program at Radio SAUT (Published)

The focus of this study was to explore the roles played by media, particularly community radios in promoting the rights to life of elderly women in Tanzania. Specifically, the study evaluated the “haki za binadamu program” aired by radio SAUT FM in Nyamagana, Mwanza region. The evaluation concentrated on two areas: One, it evaluated the accessibility and listenership of the program and two it evaluated the success of the program in promoting the rights of elderly women in the district. This is a qualitative research which used purposive and snowball sampling techniques to select the respondents. A total of 27 respondents were involved in the study, they included; three police officers from the gender desk in Nyamagana police station, five local leaders, six journalists who are specialized in human rights reporting, and 13 respondents from families of elderly women who were reported to have been killed due to witchcraft accusations. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect the data for this study. Thematic analysis was used to analysis the data gotten from the field. The findings suggest that the accessibility and listenership of haki za binadamu program in Nyamagana district was very poor. It was also found that haki za binadamu program has not played any noticeable contributions in promoting the rights to life to the elderly women in Nyamagana district.

Keywords: Evaluation, Haki za Binadamu., Media, Role, elderly women’s right to life, promoting

Budgeting and Sustainable Performance in Nigeria Quoted Food and Beverages Companies (Published)

Budgeting entails a distinct pattern of financial decisions in profit oriented organizations. The uncertainties and volatility prevailing in Nigeria business environment leading to stock out, deflection of customers, insolvency and financial distress, effectual liquidation of companies and in the alternative relocation of businesses out of Nigeria have given rise to the challenge of budgeting and budgetary control in Nigeria quoted  food and beverages companies. This studt evaluated the effect of budgeting on sustainable performance of Nigeria quoted food and beverages companies. Survey research design was adopted.  The population for the survey comprised all the eighteen (18) quoted food and beverages quoted companies in Nigeria stock Exchange as at 31 December 2017, out of which five (5) respondents with experience in accounting and finance were selected in each organization using purposive and judgmental sampling techniques.  Sixty (60) copies of the questionnaire were administered with retrieval rate of 92% .The findings showed that budgeting has significant  positive effect on production quantity with R2 0.448,F-statistics 9.938,p-value 0.000.Budgeting has significant positive  effect on turnover with R,20.409,F-statistics 8.488,p-value 0.000.Budgeting has significant positive effect on profit after tax with R2 0.255,F-statistics 4.188 and p-value 0.005.Budgeting has significant  weak but positive effect on dividend paid with R2 0182,F-stattistics of 2.733 and p-value of 0039.The result of the combined effect showed that budgeting has  positive and significant effect on sustainable performance of Nigeria quoted food and beverages companies in Nigeria with R2 0.511,F-statistics of 12.778 and p-value of 0.000.The study concluded that budgeting has positive effect on sustainable performance of Nigeria quoted food and beverages companies in Nigeria.

Budgeting entails a distinct pattern of financial decisions in profit oriented organizations. The uncertainties and volatility prevailing in Nigeria business environment leading to stock out, deflection of customers, insolvency and financial distress, effectual liquidation of companies and in the alternative relocation of businesses out of Nigeria have given rise to the challenge of budgeting and budgetary control in Nigeria quoted  food and beverages companies. This studt evaluated the effect of budgeting on sustainable performance of Nigeria quoted food and beverages companies. Survey research design was adopted.  The population for the survey comprised all the eighteen (18) quoted food and beverages quoted companies in Nigeria stock Exchange as at 31 December 2017, out of which five (5) respondents with experience in accounting and finance were selected in each organization using purposive and judgmental sampling techniques.  Sixty (60) copies of the questionnaire were administered with retrieval rate of 92% .The findings showed that budgeting has significant  positive effect on production quantity with R2 0.448,F-statistics 9.938,p-value 0.000.Budgeting has significant positive  effect on turnover with R,20.409,F-statistics 8.488,p-value 0.000.Budgeting has significant positive effect on profit after tax with R2 0.255,F-statistics 4.188 and p-value 0.005.Budgeting has significant  weak but positive effect on dividend paid with R2 0182,F-stattistics of 2.733 and p-value of 0039.The result of the combined effect showed that budgeting has  positive and significant effect on sustainable performance of Nigeria quoted food and beverages companies in Nigeria with R2 0.511,F-statistics of 12.778 and p-value of 0.000.The study concluded that budgeting has positive effect on sustainable performance of Nigeria quoted food and beverages companies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Budgeting, Control, Coordination, Evaluation, Planning, and sustainable performance.

Agronomic Evaluation of Some Landrace Cowpeas (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) and Their Wild Relative (Dekindtiana Var. Pubescens) For Incorporation into Cowpea Breeding Programme (Published)

In spite of its importance as food for humans and feedstuff for livestock, the yield of cowpea per hectare in Nigeria is still low. Improved varieties have been released to increase yield. This trend is gradually substituting local cultivars, which may lead to genetic erosion. This is undesirable because local cultivars and their wild relatives may have useful characters which are yet to be explored. The wild relative of cowpea, Dekindtiana var. pubescens, for example, is high-yielding with morphological characters that confer protection against insect pests. In this study, eleven cowpea landraces and their wild relative, Dekindtiana var. pubescens, were evaluated for growth and yield attributes in Bauchi, Northern Guinea Savannah Agro-ecology, with the aim of incorporating the desirable characters into future cowpea breeding programmes. The eleven cowpea landraces and their wild relative, making a total of 12 genotypes, were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design on a field in Bar-Arewa village in Bogoro Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The results of the study showed that the cowpea genotypes evaluated varied significantly (p< 0.05) in all the growth and yield attributes observed. Pod number per plant positively and highly correlated with height per plant (r = 0.93), number of leaves per plant (r= 0.95), number of branches per plant (r= 0.93), number of peduncles per plant (r= 0.92), but was negatively correlated with length of pod (r= -0.51). Seed yield per plant was positively correlated with hundred seed weight (r- 0.71), number of leaves per plant (r= 0.41), number of branches per plant (r= 0.42), number of peduncles per plant (r= 0.49), length of pod per plant (r= 0.41). However, hundred seed weight was negatively correlated with all the traits except the length of pod per plant (r = 0.78). It is, therefore, recommended that genotypes with longer pods, large seed size, high number of peduncles and pods and those with hairs on stems and pods be explored further for selection and incorporation into cowpea breeding programme for yield improvement.

 

Keywords: Agronomy, Breeding programme, Evaluation, Landrace cowpea, Wild cowpea

Quality Assurance Practices and Students’ Performance Evaluation in Universities of South South Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach (Published)

This study assessed quality assurance practices and students’ performance evaluation in universities of South-South Nigeria using an SEM approach. Three null hypotheses guided the study. Based on factorial research design, and using a stratified random sampling technique, a sample of 878 academic staff were drawn from a sampling frame of 15 universities in South-South Nigeria. Quality Assurance Practices Students’ Performance Evaluation Scale (QAPSPES) with split-half reliability estimates ranging from .86–.92, was used as the instruments for data collection. Multiple regression and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were used for the analysis of data, model building, and testing of the hypotheses at .05 alpha level. Findings showed a significant composite and relative influence (F=48.19, P<.05) of school management, staff, and students’ quality assurance practices on students’ performance evaluation. The results also indicated that there were positive and significant covariances between the four variables of this study, with the CFI, RMSEA, TLI, and SRMR values indicating a good model fit. It was recommended, based on the findings of this study that, each school should organize quality assurance orientation campaigns for new students and set up quality assurance committees at the school, faculty and departmental levels for optimal performance in schools.

Keywords: CFA, Evaluation, Performance Evaluation, Quality Assurance, SEM, South-south Nigeria., Students performance

Evaluation of Research Skills Application among Colleges of Education Lecturers in Kaduna State (Published)

The study focused on evaluation of research skills application among lecturers of Colleges of Education in Kaduna State. The descriptive survey design of causal comparative type was adopted in the study with a population of 206 academic staff in colleges of education in Kaduna State. A multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted for the study using the researcher’s developed instrument entitled “Evaluation of Research Skills Opinion Questionnaire” (ERSOQ). To ensure appropriate validity and reliability of  the ERSOQ, it was given to three experts, two in Measurement and Evaluation and one in English Language, to ensure face and content validity of the instrument. The instrument was pilot tested using Cronbach Alpha reliability method and the index ranged from .71 to .85. The stated null hypotheses were tested using population and independent sample t-test and the result of the data analysis revealed that research skills application among lecturers of Colleges of Education is low. It was also revealed that research skills application among lecturers of Colleges of Education is high in terms of literature review and data collection. The study also pinpoints the implication of research skills acquisition as a tool for functional education and quality research delivery. It was recommended that there should be adequate training for academic staff to equip them with the necessary training to plan and implement research activities.

 

Keywords: Evaluation, Kaduna State, Research skills application

Evaluation of Different Rates of Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea Mays L.) in A Typic Haplustult in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to evaluate different rates of poultry manure on soil properties and grain yield of maize in a typic haplustult at Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The field was laid out in randomized complete block design with five treatments of poultry manure at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40t ha-1 and replicated four times. Maize variety (Oba Super II) was used as a test crop. The soil properties and maize yield data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that different rates of poultry manure had significantly (P<0.05) higher total porosity and aggregate stability than control. The plot amended with 40t ha-1 of poultry manure had 16% lower bulk density  and 14, 20 and 23% higher aggregate stability, total porosity and gravimetric moisture content compared to control. Different rates of poultry manure had significantly (P<0.05) higher organic matter (OM), available P, N and pH when compared to control. Organic matter, available P, N and pH were higher by 32, 21, 42 and 41% in plot amended with 40t ha-1 poultry manure compared to control. Furthermore, the plot receiving 40t ha-1 of poultry droppings had significantly (P<0.05) higher OM,  available N, P, N and pH relative to plots amended with lower rates. Generally, organic matter, available P, N, pH and exchangeable bases of Calcium, magnesium, potassium and Sodium increased in the order of 40>30>20>10>0t ha-1 in the different rates of poultry manure. Grain yield of maize was 19, 17, 11 and 7% higher in plot amended with 40t ha-1 and plots amended with 10, 20 and 30t ha-1 of poultry manure when compared to control.  Rates of poultry manure are necessary for improved soil properties but for profitable grain yield of maize, higher rates are recommended.

Keywords: Evaluation, Grain Yield of Maize, Poultry Droppings, Rates, Soil Properties

The Effect of Surveillance and Evaluation Expectation on the Creativity of Primary School Pupils (Published)

Creativity seems to be one of the determinants of perpetuation of species. Humans need to invent creative ways for dealing with the challenges of surviving in a continuously evolving planet. Creativity also has great implications for a nation’s development. Nurturing and enhancing creativity is a major concern for educators. This study focusses on finding the effect of surveillance and Evaluation, two factors identified as killers of creativity; on the creativity of primary school pupils. Piaget’s theory of creativity and Vygotsky’s theory of creativity were used to explain the possible relationships in the study. The research design is the post-test control group quasi experimental design. Thirty-five children from two intact classes were purposively selected for the study. Four research questions were asked and two hypothesis formulated for the study. Data was collected from creative arts classwork of the pupils and analysed using the Independent population t-test. Results revealed a significant effect of both surveillance and evaluation expectation on the creativity of primary school pupils. Recommendations were made.

Keywords: Creativity, Evaluation, Innovation, Self-reliance, Surveillance

Evaluation of Perceived Causes of Puerperal Psychosis Among Post Cesarean Section Patients in General Hospital, Wushishi, Niger State,Nigeria (Published)

Background: Puerperal psychosis is a rare psychiatric emergency in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts, depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions set in, beginning suddenly in the first two weeks after childbirth. For the fact that majority of pregnant women perceived Cesarean section as a complicated birth option, various complications attached to the Post Cesarean section have proven that, there is need for special attention on caesarean section option. Methodology : A descriptive survey research design was employed. A total of 38 respondents were selected using judgmental and convenience sampling techniques due to the busy schedule of these health practitioners after determining the sample size using the Okpanachi (2011) restructured Yemane (1967) sampling model. Data were collected using self structured questionnaire that was pilot tested with the Cronbach Alpha of 0.78. Data collected were analyzed with SPSS software using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The study revealed that the incidence of Puerperal psychosis among Post Cesarean section patient was very high, Knowledge of Respondents on Puerperal psychosis was also high, the identified causes of Puerperal psychosis among Post Cesarean section patient include, history of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, prior episode of postpartum psychosis, or a family history of postpartum psychosis, Mutations in chromosome and in specific genes involved in serotoninergic, hormonal, and inflammatory pathways, giving birth for the first time, Depression or anxiety during pregnancy, stressful recent life events, poor social support and a previous history of depression. the identified Management strategies employed towards control of  Puerperal psychosis among Post Cesarean section patient include, Psycho-education and psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, Lithium Treatment and Prophylaxis, Antiepileptic drugs (AED). However, Electroconvulsive Therapy and Breastfeeding of baby are alternative methods often used to manage Puerperal psychosis. Conclusion: It was concluded that family care and financial status of family were also very good predictor of Puerperal psychosis, thus Management of Health facilities should intensify the need for self financial assessment before planning on having babies.

Keywords: Evaluation, General Hospital, Patients, Perceived Causes, Post Ceasarean Section, Puerperal Psychosis

The Challenges of Community-Based Interventions for People Living With HIV in Four High HIV Prevalence Regions in Ghana: Lessons for Africa (Published)

The ‘HOPE’ programme is a major community-based care and support programme for providing care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ghana. This paper explores the challenges confronting the ‘HOPE’ programme and discusses them in the context of wider literature to provide lessons for Ghana and Africa. The study adopted a qualitative approach in which in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with 14 stakeholders and 8 focus group discussions were held with the programme beneficiaries. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. It was identified that only a few of the beneficiaries benefited from skills training leading to employment due to inadequate funding, slow cash flow and inadequate inter-sectoral collaborations. To compound these weaknesses, most reported that they preferred petty trading to the skills offered. Also, the long-term sustainability of the food supplementation once funding is discontinued was a major concern. However, the health education component could be sustained due to peer educators trained.

Keywords: Care, Community-Based, Evaluation, HIV, interventions

Practitioner-Patient Relationship: An Evaluation of Perceptions in Ghana (Published)

The relationship between health practitioners and their clients is central to the practice of healthcare as well as essential to the delivery of quality diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It forms one of the foundations of modern-day healthcare ethics; thus, a keystone of general healthcare. As expected of medical practitioners to maintain a serene and professional rapport with clients, support clients’ dignity, and respect their position in the continuous development of health care, patients, on the other hand, are also anticipated not to annihilate this relationship. In Ghana, for instance, this relationship seems not to have obtained absolute appreciation, thereby hindering its helpful effects on healthcare delivery in general. As its purpose, the paper evaluates knowledge and perceptions concerning patient-practitioner relationship in Ghana to understand the context within which this relationship operates. This research -conducted in 2 districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana -involved a sample size of 300 respondents (78 healthcare professionals from 13 health institutions and 222 clients). A systematic search with questionnaires and interviews as research tools were used in gathering data. Respondents (over 85 per cent) exhibited a higher level of knowledge as regards health professional-patient relationship. Respondents were, however, divided as to whether or not this relationship was a positive one in their respective health centres. While some respondents (mostly health personnel) believed that the relationship was cordial, others (mostly patients) taught otherwise. This research is made relevant since there is considerable curative power in proper alliance between patients and health practitioners

Keywords: Evaluation, Health Care Practitioner, Patient., Perceptions, Relationship

Critical Areas of Measurement and Evaluation in Education, Where Final Year NCE Students in the South-East Nigeria Experience Difficulties (Published)

This study aimed at investigating the critical areas of measurement and evaluation in education, where Final year NCE Students experience difficulties in the South East, Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study. A sample of 1250 NCE Final year students  selected through stratified proportionate(10%) random sampling technique from five (5) Colleges of Education in the five (5) states of  South East, Nigeria was used for the study. Questionnaire instrument developed by the researchers was used for data   collection . The instrument was validated  by three experts, one from Science Education and two from Educational Measurement and Evaluation. The data collected were analyzed using Mean and Improvement Required Index (IRI). The results show that the Final Year NCE Students require improvement in all the thirty (30) items of measurement and evaluation. Also the students rated that they require improvement in all the aspect of test development process. Based on these findings the following recommendations were made:  Colleges of Education in the South East  Nigeria , should collaborate with experts in Educational Measurement and  Evaluation to organize intensive lectures, workshops, seminars and short courses for the Final Year NCE Students in those areas under study, in order to upgrade their competencies. Equally, Lecturers in measurement and evaluation should spend more time in teaching the course, giving special assignments to NCE  students on those critical areas/topics in the South-East, Nigeria.

Keywords: Critical, Critical Areas, Educational Measurement, Evaluation, Nce Students.

Evaluation of the Impact of Science, Technology and Modernisation in Social Studies Curriculum on University Students (Published)

This study was designed to evaluate the impact of Social Studies course – “Science, Technology and Modernisation”, how it can be best delivered and learnt by university students. The novelty research was devised to ascertain how effective out-of-door activities and classroom interactive teaching and learning will have on students learning performance. The course is meant to develop in learners an attitude of re-examining society from the point of view of developments in science, technology and modernity. Four hundred students were involved in the study. Students were asked to answer pre-instructional, instructional and post instructional course questions. Unstructured interviews were also used for clarification of issues raised by students. The pre-instructional course questions were: (1) what do you know about “Science”, “Technology” and “Modernisation”?; and (2) what are the ideal teaching and learning techniques you will wished to be adopted in the classroom? The instructional course questions were: (1) what are your prospects for the course of study; and (1) what are the challenges you encountered during teaching and learning?. The post instructional course questions were: (1) what are the strengths of the teacher and the learners?; and (2) what  are the achievements from the course of study?. These processes were employed to elicit responses from the students. Interpretative analytical approach was adopted to analyse the data collected. It was concluded that there was a strong consensus among students that the ideal participatory teaching and learning method, techniques and strategies they suggested to be used were later precluded by them. It was also revealed that majority of students were not in tune with the purely interactive and participatory lesson delivery approach. Based on the findings, the study recommended that favourable classroom atmosphere must be created, coupled with enforced cooperative teaching and learning techniques to enhance participation of students. Also, in order to ensure effective retention of concepts taught, students must be exposed to concrete and technological materials to practicalised the teaching of Social Studies. Educational / field trip should be incorporated in the teaching of Social Studies, especially when teaching the concepts “Science and Technology”. This will help students probe into issues concerning science and technology by using their observational, manipulative and investigative skills.

Keywords: Curriculum, Evaluation, Modernisation, Science, Social Studies, Students, Technology, University

Evaluation of Analgesic Property of Desmodium Velutinum (P.Beauv.) Dc (Papilionaceae) (Published)

Desmodium velutinum (family Papilionaceae) is used in Nigeria and Lokoja in particular for the treatment of abdominal pain among others. The LD50 was evaluated along with analgesic properties. The analgesic effects of the methanol extract of D. velutinum were investigated at three dose levels (100, 200, 300) mg/kg on the experimental models of pain in mice. The result of LD50 was greater than 3000mg/kg showing D. velutinum extract is relatively safe for human consumption. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated using the hot-plate and abdominal constriction tests. The extracts produced significant (P<0.05) inhibition of thermal nociception induced by hot plate. On chemical nociception induced by intra-peritoneal acetic acid, the extracts significantly (P<0.05) decreased the number of writhing episodes and the  time spent before jumping off the hot-plate in a dose independent manner. These results suggest that the extract of D.velutinum may act by inhibiting the mediators of pain. These findings may justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine in the management of pain and related diseases in Nigeria.

Keywords: Activity, Anlgesic, Desmodium Velutinum, Evaluation, Papilionaceae

Evaluation of Students’ Personnel Services in Colleges of Education in Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate evaluation of students’ personnel services in colleges of education in Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was adopted; three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population comprised 6184 and 8,569 staff and students of federal and state colleges of education respectively. A stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 770 staff and students from federal and state colleges of education in South-East geo-political zone of Nigeria. Evaluation of student personnel services questionnaire (ESPSQ) was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using t-test statistics to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that there was low extent of adequacy of student personnel services in both colleges. There was no significant difference on the extent of availability of student personnel services in both colleges of education. Educational implications and conclusion were drawn.

Keywords: Adequacy, Availability, Evaluation, Personnel Service, Quality and Strategies

IELTS Academic Reading Module Test: Validity and Reliability (Published)

The testing of reading comprehension seems deceptively simple when compared to the testing of other abilities. The basic problem is that the language tester is expected to set tasks that will not only lead the candidate to use reading skills but will also result in behavior that provides clear evidence of the successful use of those skills. This paper aims to evaluate the IELTS Academic Reading Module Test in detail, examining its validity and reliability and discussing how far its format, operations, conditions, and techniques meet its purpose. The paper focuses mainly on the test scoring rules, which appear to be strict in terms of spelling, grammar, and the number of words required for written responses. It concludes with some recommendations on ways in which the validity and reliability of IELTS reading scoring rules could be improved.

Keywords: Conditions Validity, Evaluation, Format, IELTS Academic Reading Module Test, Operations, Reliability, Scoring Rules

Evaluation of the Contribution of Portfolios of New Contributory Pension Scheme on Nigerian Economy (Published)

Pension fund investment is one of the key areas in the new contributory pension fund in Nigeria. One of the major challenges confronting the managers of the PFAs in investment decisions is the dearth of investment outlets which has been spread into various securities. The focus of this study is to evaluate the contribution of portfolios of new contributory pension fund on Nigerian gross domestic product (GDP) and the relationships between the pension portfolios with the Nigerian GDP. The population of the study entails nine (9) years while six (6) years were sampled for study (2007-2012). The parameters like Domestic Ordinary Shares, Federal Government of Nigeria Securities, Local Money Market Securities and Real Estate Property of pension fund for the period under review were used. Statistical tool like Scientific Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 18.0 were used to regress the data and the hypotheses were tested using F-test and Pearson product moment correlation test. Result shows that, Domestic Ordinary Shares, Federal Government of Nigeria Securities and Real Estate Property of pension fund all have positive contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product for the period under review while Local Money Market Securities have negative contribution to Nigerian GDP. We recommended that, there should be more investment of pension fund in Domestic Ordinary Shares, Federal Government of Nigeria securities and Real estate property to boost Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nigeria. However, there should be a reduce investment of pension fund in Local Money Market Securities because of its negative impact on the Nigerian gross domestic product as revealed by this study.

Keywords: Contribution, Evaluation, New Contributory Pension Scheme, Nigerian Economy, Portfolios

Testing and Evaluation in English Language Teaching – A Case of O level English in Nigeria (Published)

One of the ways through which feedback can be obtained from the learners on what the teachers had taught them is evaluation. Students’ achievement in a particular course of study can be determined through evaluation. This work observed various aspects of Ordinary Level English in which students’ achievement are often assessed in Nigeria with a view to assisting students in overcoming problems often encountered during such tests and evaluations. Purposes and forms of language tests were briefly discussed. This was followed by a discussion on characteristics of a good language test. The aspect of tests and examinations in West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) was exhaustively discussed to give insight into what both teachers and learners are expected to focus on. It was recommended that students should be encouraged to possess all the recommended textbooks and change their reading habits. Teachers were also encouraged to always make themselves available for the students and be willing to assist them in the areas of difficulties in O Level English.

Keywords: English language teaching, Evaluation, Nigeria, O Level English, Testing

Triangulation Analysis of Complex Health Organizations in French-Speaking Black Africa Methods (Published)

African evaluate complex organizations of a public nature, and regional or international scope including non-governmental or humanitarian organizations working in the field of public health is not easy. Many problems related to planning of the study and the lack of relevant methodological tools to better decode the organizational phenomena and make sense of them both descriptive and prescriptive often pose significant obstacles. This is to contribute to solving these problems that should adopt a pluralistic approach or policy based on methodological triangulation. It is the integration of the various methodological tools (triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods and triangulation of data sources). The use of this approach has allowed to know the story of three regionally-based organizations based in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, their actual performance and future prospects. We have also been able to verify the rigor of the method, especially in terms of relevance of the observations and criterion validity of the content of investigations

Keywords: Africa, Evaluation, Organizational Performance, Triangulation, public health