Regional Integration and Brexit: Between Economic Nationalism and Economic Internationalism (Published)
The broad objective of this paper is to examine the theoretical justification for the exit of Britain from the European Union in 2016. It agrees that despite the fact that a nation can hardly exist in isolation, it may opt out from an integrating system when the wellbeing of its nationhood is threatened or jettisoned for supra-territorial interest. In furthering this objective, the paper employs the content analysis method to determine whether the duo of economic nationalism and economic internationalism underscore albeit, theoretically, the action of Britain to exit the European Union after the referendum in June, 2016. Part of the findings of the paper show that issues of immigration, underemployment, tax evasion and high support levy for the European Union were chief in undermining the economic prosperity of the Britain and hence the call for referendum. The paper amongst others recommends that the United Kingdom can open its trade policy unilaterally to all countries after exiting the EU, implement deregulation policy at home and negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU.
In a dynamic, multidimensional and more operational environment, the effectiveness of human resources is a matter of major importance, leading most organizations and enterprises to pursue total quality in all their activities (Hofstede, 1990). The quality can be ensured through the comprehensive improvement of employee skills, international alliances, the introduction and support of innovations, the lifelong education and training of human resources. International organizations, in a context of global co-operation and synergy, are called upon to play an important role in this direction, as they have both the appropriate experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To that end, important official texts have been drawn up, of which a constant point of reference is the need to acquire proper and appropriate skills. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made mainly to the categories of interpersonal relations management and self-management. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers to develop communication, facilitate change, enhance the development of others, teamwork, co-operation and adaptation to continuously changing environments.
Whether economic interdependence among countries is a contributing factor to co-integration and common stochastic trends in international stock markets is indiscernible due to conflicting results from prior empirical works. The purpose of this study is in two folds: Firstly to investigate whether the implementation of the Maastricht treaty has played any role in determining the long-run relationship between U.K stock market and other E.U and non-E.U stock markets and also to investigate the extent to which world stock markets have been correlated in the short-run over the study period and how such relationships would benefit investors in their portfolio diversification decisions. Data for this study was obtained from M.S.C.I indices and covered the period from 1985-2003. The methodologies used for this study are the correlation coefficient, the Vector Error Correction model and Vector Autoregressive model for the short-run relationship as well as the Johansen Co-integration approach for testing the long-run stochastic trend among the variables under consideration. The results for the short-run relationship among the variables indicates that in general, stock markets from the developed economies have become integrated in the short-run after the implementation of the Maastricht treaty compared to the pre-Maastricht treaty era. The results also show that the U.K stock market shows high correlation with the U.S stock market both before and after the implementation of the treaty and that correlation with other European Union economies, increased after the treaty. The co-integration results for the pre-Maastricht treaty period showed 2 co-integrations among the variables but there was no evidence of co-integration after the implementation of the treaty. However, when test was carried out for the whole study period, the results showed 1 co-integration among the sample country indices. The implication from the above results shows that diversification benefits for international investors wishing to invest into these developed markets especially in the short-run should expect reduced gains. However, long-term diversification benefits are possible as long as the correlations between these markets are low.
The purpose of this paper is to present the current situation in Albania, regarding women’s representation in public administration, in front of European integration challenge. Women’s representation in public administration is analyzed in this paper, with special focus at senior management position as well as in decision-making bodies, compared with the standards of gender quota in Albania and European Union countries. This analysis is based on secondary data; reports or other studies which are processed and analyzed through the statistical comparison. The methodology used is the descriptive and comparative one. There are different findings regarding the different levels of public administration. Women’s representation at low and middle level of public administration, marks significant achievements, exceeded national and European gender quota standards, while at senior management level and decision making bodies it is still in critical level.