Boko Haram: The Birth, Geography and Hypotheses Responsible For the Sustenance of the Conflict in Nigeria (Published)
There are many states on the northern border of Nigeria with Niger, Chad and Cameroon. And in these states, there are many ethnic groups. However, it is only the Kanuri enclave of Borno and Yobe states that produced the radical Islamic boko haram sect. It is the informed position of this paper that one of the reasons why the Kanuri gestated boko haram was largely due to the international territorial advantage they have. The reason is that the Kanuri is the only ethnic group in northern Nigeria that undistorted distribution into neighbouring countries of Chad, Cameroon and Niger, with the special feature of almost uninterrupted spread. Therefore, the paper argues that this geographical advantage certainly has a fundamental role in the on-going conflict of the boko haram. It is also the submission of this paper that the version of Islam prevalent in the Kanuri enclave is predisposed to radicalism that boko haram prides with. It is common knowledge that since the conflict ensued, the Nigerian government has taken measures aimed at curtailing moments of attacks and frustrating the movement’s ambition. This desire is yet a success. Therefore, the paper appraises the methodologies so far employed, identifying why they have not worked, and probably why they will never work for this conflict that has lasted for a decade now.
This article is a part of research result entitled “Tidung People at the Border Building Nation, Keeping Harmony: A Study of Interethnic Relations in Nunukan Regency of North Kalimantan.This critical ethnographic research examines the construction of ethnic identity and cultural aspect of Tidung people in Nunukan regency. The data were analyzed interactively including data reduction, data display, and verification.In the development, Tidung people in some areas such as in Tarakan are classified as developed; whereas, in other area such as Nunukan, they are classified as people with modest living. The simplicity of Tidung people in Nunukan regency is reflected in their cultural orientation for a homely life. In religious life, Tidung older generation is classified as pluralistic Islam while the young generation tries to release themselves from pluralism in their religion.In this reformation era, the awareness of strengthening political identity is appeared as indicated by the emergence of “Pan Dayak” that reflects brotherhood between the Dayak and Tidung people in PUSAKA (The Association of Kalimantan Natives) organization. The spirit of political identity renaissance should be observed, because Nunukan regency is a pluralistic area especially for the Bugis who control the area, economically and politically. Therefore, proper management of interethnic relations is necessary to make the situation in Nunukan regency remain under control.
The Effect of Acculturation through Ethnic Identity on Self- Adaptation of Punjabi Teenagers at the Age of 15-18 Years in Medan City, Indonesia (Published)
This research aims to obtain a model of influence of acculturation of integration, separation and assimilation through the unexamined search and achieved ethnic identity against the self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at age of 15 – 18 years in Medan city. The hypothesis of this research is the influence of acculturation of integration, separation and assimilation through unexamined, search and achieved ethnic identity to the self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at age 15 – 18 years old in Medan city. This research uses quantitative approach in the form of descriptive explanatory with causal relationship design. The research subjects are the 88 Punjabi teenagers at age of 15 – 18 years old in Medan City which are obtained by snowball sampling technique. The data collection instruments are acculturation scale, ethnic identity and self-adaptation. The data of this research are collected by using questionnaires arranged in the form of ordinal scale with Likert scale model. The data have been obtained, analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), which is conducted in two ways, namely testing the measurement model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) analysis technique, and testing of structural model through Partial Least Square (PLS) through the Smart – PLS software program. The result of hypothesis testing shows that the effect of acculturation of integration, separation and assimilation through unexamined, search ethnic identity, and the achievement have an effect on the self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at the age of 15-18 years in Medan city. The effect models of integration acculturation, separation and assimilation through the unexamined, search, and achieved ethnic identity against self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at the age of 15-18 year in Medan City proved to have suitability of theoretical model with empirical data.