Tag Archives: Ethiopia

The Quest for Regional Statehood and Its Practicability under the Post-1991 Ethiopian Federation: The Discontents and Experience of Sidama Nation (Published)

This paper examines the constitutional and alongside political dynamics associated with the Sidama nation’s official and sustained demand to exercise the right to establish their own regional state and the repressive response of the ruling regime in post-1991 Ethiopia’s federal system. The 1995 Ethiopian constitution defines Ethiopia as a federal polity and provides for the unconditional right to self-determination including secession for the various ethnonational groups as an organizing principle. The most important component of this right is the right to self-administration, and the central precept of this right is exercised through the establishment of one’s regional state. After promising this right to every ethnonational groups, the constitution, however, established only nine ethno-linguistically demarcated regions most of which are delineated based on predominant ethnic identity. The constitution also allowed for other groups who do not have their region to establish their own regional state at “any time”. The most explicit exception to regional arrangement based on ethno-linguistic identity has been the case of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) which is comprised of over 56 extremely different ethnic groups and formed by a forced merger of five previously autonomous regions. As a result, there are some inherent paradoxes in the federal setup where some groups with small population and territory were allowed their own regional state. Whereas on the other extreme, the Sidama, the fifth most populous nation, whose population goes well over 5 million, and with also long history of struggle against oppression, with viable economic capacity, and with the experience of autonomous provincial existence and administrative bureaucracy under previous regimes is denied separate statehood thereby relegated to zonal status. The forced dismantling of its autonomous regional state which existed for brief period until 1994 and subsequent suppression and rejection of their official demand led them to live in a continued political discontent. This paper finds out that despite a persistent quest for regional statehood through constitutionally sanctioned procedures, their quest is not properly addressed, and instead, the way in which it is handled led to repressive state response and serious human rights violations. Drawing on the experience of Sidama people, it argues that the arbitrary suppression of genuine demands for the exercise of collective right contradicts the raison d’etre of federalism and its principles, defeats the supremacy clause of the constitution, and makes the said right dysfunctional. Therefore, the paper suggests that the genuine demand of the people should be addressed based on the constitutional principles which in turn helps make the federal system responsive; and it also calls for determined and vigilant effort on the part of the concerned people in the exercise of their rights in way that it makes the right effective.

Keywords: Ethiopia, discontents, federation, regional-statehood, self-determination, sidama

Environmental Perspective of Urban Agriculture In Debre Markos Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia (Published)

Urban agriculture plays great role in environmental benefits to urban farmers in particular and urban dwellers at large to grasp the significance of the sector towards urban environments. It also contributes challenges to the environment unless urban farmers take care of farming practices. So, the study focused on identifying the major types of UA in Debre Markos Town, identifying stakeholders involved in urban agriculture, challenges of urban agriculture to the environment and environmental benefits of urban agriculture. Basically the study employed a descriptive research type. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. And 152 samples were systematically selected from individual farmers, micro and small enterprise under urban agriculture, and investors. Eight officials were selected through purposive sampling from relevant governmental organizations. Empirical data was collected through structured questionnaire, interview guiding questions, focus group discussion, and on spot observation. The data gathered via the aforementioned techniques were analyzed and the findings were presented using tables, charts, and plates. Accordingly, the findings revealed that animal husbandry is the most common urban agricultural activity in Debre Markos Town following green biodiversity enrichment. In addition, though the multi-stakeholders are participating in urban agriculture, their environmental concern was very low. It is evident that 55.9% of challenges of urban agriculture to the environment are waste dumping, soil loss and loss of biodiversity due to ignorance of environmental attention while farming in the town. From the study, it is concluded that composting of both municipal and household waste for urban agriculture is a neglected activity which would have been used for augmenting of soil fertility instead of polluting the urban environment. It also recommends that awareness creation; spur on institutional support with special attention to the environment and rendering technical extension service as it has been case for rural areas to solve negative environmental outlooks and practices of urban farmers should be strengthened.

 

Keywords: Environmental Benefit, Environmental Challenge, Ethiopia, Urban Agriculture, Urban Farmer

The Role of Cooperatives on the Socio-Economic Development of Ethiopia (Published)

This paper presents the role of cooperatives on the socio-economic development of Ethiopia. It is based on a national survey where 173 cooperatives and 831 cooperatives members were taken as a sample and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) at eight different regions of the country were considered. The study was based on semi-structured questionnaire. It included a period of ten years (2001-2011). Results of the survey reveal that cooperatives have contributed a lot in the country’s economic development besides supporting their members by providing different products, services, as well as variety of benefits such as securing their food, increasing their income, improving life style and social participation, and inputs for their agriculture activities. Moreover, on the average cooperatives support nearly 15.00 to 29.68 descent jobs and spent 28,032.29 up to 122,297.7 birr as wage and salary per cooperative per year. The average contribution of cooperatives to the Ethiopian GDP for the last ten years is found to be relatively less which ranges 1.21% to 12.27%. The overall findings showed that, cooperatives have struggled to impact the socio-economic development of the country and support their members to improve their livelihood with the unpaved economy and policy of the country.

Keywords: Cooperatives, Ethiopia, Socio-Economic, empowerment of women and youth

Pitfalls of Tourism Development in Ethiopia: A Case of Bahir Dar Town and Its Surroundings, a Historical Perspective (Published)

The history of tourism is one of the neglected themes in Ethiopian history which has received less scholarly attention. In Ethiopia, the development of modern tourism as an important economic sector traced back to the imperial regime. This was when the Ethiopian Tourist Organization (ETO) was founded in 1961. Since that period, until the overthrow of the regime in 1974, the development of tourism has shown a remarkable and smooth upward trend in the arrival of tourists. However, shortly after the military government assumed power in 1974, the growth of tourism was highly subjected to adverse political and socio-economic crises. This became evident when the tourism sector experienced a downward trend in its history, whereby the number of tourists steadily decreased from 1,267 in 1974 to 141 in 1977 in Bahir Dar and its surroundings and from 50,220 to 28,984 in 1977 at the national level. However, the seizure of power by a new government in 1991 brought about a relatively conducive environment for the growth of tourism which is evident in the adoption of free market, relative stability, and infrastructural development. Thus, this paper sheds light on the history of tourism and its challenges throughout the three consecutive Ethiopian regimes: the imperial, Derg, and EPRDF. This was done in the context of the changing political regimes in light of the political, economic, and ideological shifts. In order to realize the intended objectives, primary sources of information were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with tourists, experts, hotel managers, and tour guides. In addition, government reports from published and un-published sources were also consulted.

Keywords: Bahir Dar, Challenges, Ethiopia, Tourism, history

Market Structure and Chain Analysis of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L) (Published)

Haricot bean is now becoming one of the most reputable crops for its role for human consumption. A research was undertaken in Enebse Sar Midir district, northern Ethiopia, with the objectives of identifying the different marketing channels, evaluating the marketing margins and examining the market structure. Data were gathered using formal and informal methods of data collection and processed using SPSS-20. The result revealed that a total of 15,200 tons of haricot bean was produced in the district in and of this; 13,468 tons was found to pass through the marketing channels during 2011/2012. Following the marketing chains, 7 marketing channels were identified. Market concentration measures indicated that markets were found to be strongly oligopolistic and inefficient in structure (with wide final consumers’ price spread). Gross marketing margin was maximum for city wholesalers (38.60%) and minimum for farmer traders (13.22%) of the consumers’ price). Net marketing margin was maximum (11.52%) for processors and minimum (7.36) for rural assemblers. In order to empower producers, marketing actors and intensify the existing business, the structure and efficiency of haricot bean markets have to be improved. Empowering producers with financially (facilitating credit) and training can improve the market structure and performance.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Market Concentration, Market Efficiency, Marketing Actors, Oligopoly.

The Effect Of Supply Chain Integration On Operational Performance: A Study On Chemical And Chemical Product Manufacturing Firms In Ethiopia (Published)

The aim of this research is to empirically examine the effect of supply chain integration on operational performance. In order to address the research objective, a quantitative survey approach is used to collect the relevant data from the target population of the study which includes Chemical and Chemical product manufacturing firms in Ethiopia. A questionnaire was administered to target respondents to collect a primary data for the study.  To analyze  the  data this study applied a descriptive  and  non  parametric  statistics including Kendall’s  correlation and Kruskal Wallis  test  to  see  the  significant  relationship between hypothesized variables as well as  to  measure the direction and strength of the relationship. The result from study shows a significant positive effect of supply chain integration construct on the operational performance of firms. However, this research investigation did not found statistically significant evidence on the effect of internal integration on external integrations

Keywords: Ethiopia, Integration, Manufacturing, Supply Chain, chemical product

Enhancing rural food security and conserving natural environment through improved Beekeeping in Asano koto watershed, Ethiopia (Published)

The role of bees in agriculture, in maintaining biodiversity and in sustainable livelihoods and food security has been widely demonstrated. Nevertheless, the potential of beekeeping is far too often not exploited in forest activities and development programmes, because the benefits of bees and beekeeping are not well known to stakeholders. This paper is aimed to provide farmers and stakeholders in the beekeeping on the conservation sector with information and arguments to convince them to view beekeeping as a viable commercial and protective measure that should always be considered in conservation programmes. The study revealed that by increasing beekeeping skill, honey producers in the watershed realized the value and the need to conserve watershed as they obtained alternative income from honey production as high value commodity. Adoption of beekeeping was realized to be appropriate adaptation measures following the fact that it improved livelihood of local people and enhanced sustainable conservation of the natural environment. Therefore, if watershed conservation and livelihood preservation are to occur, it is important to bring the voices of honey producers to the forefront of watershed conservation efforts. The study also determined several factors that have been barriers to wider adoption of beekeeping at Asano koto watershed. These include lack of appropriate beekeeping skills among local people, financial constraints and environmental factors. To promote and sustain beekeeping among rural communities at the watershed, improvement of extension services, tree planting campaign and microfinance services have been suggested.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Food Security, Siltie zone, integrated beekeeping, watershed conservation

Environmental Perspective of Urban Agriculture in Debre Markos Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia (Published)

Urban agriculture plays great role in environmental benefits to urban farmers in particular and urban dwellers at large to grasp the significance of the sector towards urban environments. It also contributes challenges to the environment unless urban farmers take care of farming practices. So, the study focused on identifying the major types of UA in Debre Markos Town, identifying stakeholders involved in urban agriculture, challenges of urban agriculture to the environment and environmental benefits of urban agriculture. Basically the study employed a descriptive research type. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. And 152 samples were systematically selected from individual farmers, micro and small enterprise under urban agriculture, and investors. Eight officials were selected through purposive sampling from relevant governmental organizations. Empirical data was collected through structured questionnaire, interview guiding questions, focus group discussion, and on spot observation. The data gathered via the aforementioned techniques were analyzed and the findings were presented using tables, charts, and plates. Accordingly, the findings revealed that animal husbandry is the most common urban agricultural activity in Debre Markos Town following green biodiversity enrichment. In addition, though the multi-stakeholders are participating in urban agriculture, their environmental concern was very low. It is evident that 55.9% of challenges of urban agriculture to the environment are waste dumping, soil loss and loss of biodiversity due to ignorance of environmental attention while farming in the town. From the study, it is concluded that composting of both municipal and household waste for urban agriculture is a neglected activity which would have been used for augmenting of soil fertility instead of polluting the urban environment. It also recommends that awareness creation; spur on institutional support with special attention to the environment and rendering technical extension service as it has been case for rural areas to solve negative environmental outlooks and practices of urban farmers should be strengthened.

Keywords: Environmental Benefit, Environmental Challenge, Ethiopia, Urban Agriculture, Urban Farmer

The Effects of Advertising Spending and Event Sponsorship on Brand Equity in the Ethiopian Brewery Industry (Published)

The field of branding and brand equity is new area of research in Ethiopia. The study adapts an exploratory approach to measure the effects of advertising spending and event sponsorship effect on consumer-based brand equity because there is no study conducted in the Ethiopia beer market. Accordingly, the study assumes advertising spending and event sponsorships affecting brand equity dimensions positively. Hence, a conceptual model has been built and structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to verify the model. A quantitative research was undertaken and a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design in nature was applied in the study. The study confirmed that from advertising spending intensity: television advertising spending has a positive effect on brand awareness; and outdoor advertising has a positive effect on brand awareness, brand association, and perceived quality. On the contrary radio advertising has a negative effect on perceived quality, and print advertising has a negative effect on brand awareness. Furthermore, event sponsorship has a positive effect on brand awareness and brand associations.

Keywords: Advertising Spending Frequency, Brand Equity Dimensions, Ethiopia, Event Sponsorship

Assessing the Performances of Coffee Marketing Cooperatives in Yirgacheffe Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Snnprs, Ethiopia (Published)

In the coffee industry, coffee marketing cooperatives are anticipated to play an innermost role in the efforts to develop the sector. Meanwhile, the contributions of these cooperatives in the developing countries are limited to the smallest margin. Besides to that, the performance of coffee cooperatives in these countries is not yet well studied. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the performance of coffee marketing cooperatives in Ethiopia with a special focus on Yirgacheffe woreda. To meet the objective of the study, descriptive types of research techniques were utilized. The results of the study revealed that coffee cooperatives in the study area are moderately progressing so far as strengthening their financial positions and serving their members is concerned. However, they are still challenged by different impinging factors.

Keywords: Coffee, Cooperatives, Ethiopia, Performance, Yirgacheffe

Review of Bamboo Value Chain in Ethiopia (Published)

Ethiopia has greatest bamboo resources in Africa representing a significant proportion of Africa’s total bamboo resources. The main objective of this review to increase the understanding of problems and constraints facing bamboo production and marketing system, current opportunities and challenges of bamboo marketing, economic, environmental and aesthetic value of bamboo in Ethiopia. Bamboo value chain includes wide range of production to consumption systems and actors. Depending on which market is served, the bamboo products in Ethiopia passes through various intermediary stages until it reaches the final customers. But their value chain linkage is undeveloped. Bamboo agribusiness has worldwide opportunities. Bamboo products currently have very huge demand. It can be utilized at all levels of industrial activity from small craft based industries to modern highly integrated plants. Imbalance between demand and supply is one the core challenges to bamboo agribusiness sector in Ethiopia. Bamboo has huge economic, environmental, aesthetic/cultural values. It is applicable in a variety of engineering fields including landscape, civil and chemical engineering. Bamboo has also culture value in addition to economic and ecological value in Ethiopia. For example Dawuro in Ethiopia; the longest woodwind musical instrument in the world locally called “Dinka” (4 to 5 meters long, four in number) which is made from bamboo and other materials. Therefore; bamboo has worldwide uses ranges from medicine to nutrition (has 1500 uses). It is possible to exploit the existing opportunities of bamboo sub-sector through value chain approach by promoting the formation of farmers’ associations, provision of appropriate technology and training for pre-processing, facilitating capacity development with technology transfer and upgrading skills in bamboo processing and creation of a network and links with other associations, stakeholders and partners are important to solve challenges of bamboo industry in Ethiopia.

Keywords: Bamboo, Challenges, Economic, Ethiopia, Value Chain, environmental and aesthetic/cultural value, opportunities

DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD SAVING IN ETHIOPIA: A CASE OF NORTH GONDAR ZONE, AMHARA REGIONAL STATE (Published)

Development economics have for several decades recognized the importance of the mobilization of domestic savings for economic growth in developing countries. However, saving level in Ethiopia is very low and little is known empirically about its patterns and determinants. Therefore, this study attempts to identify and analyze the main determinants of household saving in Ethiopia giving special emphasis to North Gondar zone on three selected districts i.e. Gondar, Dembia and Dabat using survey data collected from 604 sample households in August 2013. The results of the descriptive analyses shows that 54.1% of sample households practiced saving and the common reasons for households not to save are low income, inflation, low interest rate, cultural background, education, social affairs and unemployment. The planning and expenditure controlling habit of most respondents was also found minimal. Besides, the economic analyses shows that income, age, sex, marital status, forms of institutions used for saving and frequency of getting money are significant determinants of household savings in the study area. Based on these findings, we recommend that government policy intervention should focus on increasing the availability and accessibility of financial institutions, awareness creation and education on the importance saving and saving modalities, planning and expenditure controlling habit, socio-cultural saving barriers, increasing interest rate, and inflation and unemployment combating strategies to augment saving capacity, investment and then economic growth.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Household saving behaviors, North Gondar Zone, saving determinants

Assessment of sheep production system in Burie District, North Western Ethiopia (Published)

The study was conducted in Burie District to assess the sheep production system and to identify and prioritize the sheep production constraints. Informal and formal surveys were conducted in four selected kebeles of Burie District, namely, Woheni Durebetie, Woyenema Ambaye, Denbun and Boko Tabo. The farmers interviewed in the informal survey were selected purposively and for the formal survey, by systematic random sampling method. Farmers rear sheep for two main purposes, for cash income and home slaughter on festivals. On average, one household had 3.7±2.46 heads of sheep (n = 127). Washera and Horro sheep breeds were found in the area. There were more Washera sheep (98%) in Woheni Durebetie Kebele and more Horro sheep (92%) in Boko Tabo Kebele. The main feed resources for sheep were natural pasture and stubble grazing. Most farmers supplement common salt and Atella (a local beer (Tela) residue) to their sheep. Feed shortage occurs both during the dry and rainy seasons in the highland kebeles. There was a deficit of 0.7 ton DM feed per household per year in the highland kebeles. The sheep production system is subsistence-oriented. Sheep diseases, lack of adequate veterinary service and feed and nutrient shortage were the main sheep production constraints in the area in that order of importance. To improve sheep production in Burie District, these constraints should be given more emphasis in research and development activities that are going to be undertaken in the study area

Keywords: Ethiopia, Production constraints, Production system, Sheep

Impact Analysis of Mede Telila Small Scale Irrigation Scheme on House Poverty Alleviation: Case of Gorogutu District in Eastern Haratghe Oromia National Regional State Ethiopia (Published)

The main objective of the study was to access the impact of Mede Telilasmall-scale irrigation scheme on household poverty alleviation in Gorogutu District of Eastern Hararghe, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. To achieve the objective of the study, data were collected from 200 households, 100 from participants and 100 from non-participants in the irrigation scheme, in the study district. Descriptive statistics, the Foster, Greer and Thobeck (FGT) poverty indices and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the small-scale irrigation scheme significantly reduced the incidence, the depth and the severity of households’ poverty in the study district. The empirical model also revealed that access to the irrigation scheme significantly influenced the households’ consumption expenditure level. The Average Treatment effect of Treated (ATT) indicated that, the per capita consumption expenditure of irrigation users is 25% more than non-users of irrigation. These results indicate that the small-scale irrigation scheme improved the livelihood of households in the study district.

Keywords: Consumption Expenditure, Ethiopia, Gorogutu, Household Poverty, Impact, Irrigation Scheme