Tag Archives: Enzymes

Determination of Acute Toxicity and Effects of Dried Carpel of Annona Senegalensis Extract On Alkaline Phosphatase, Amino Transferases and Body Weight in Mice (Published)

Annona senegalensis is an evergreen shrub that is used for ethnomedicinal purposes and as a source of food. The toxicological potential of dried carpels of Annona senegalensis was investigated by determining the acute toxicity and the effect of the plant extract on body weight, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum level. Cold methanolic extract of the plant was concentrated using steam bath. Acute toxicity testing was carried out to determine LD50. While sub chronic toxicity screening was conducted on the animals grouped in to 3 test groups and a control group comprising of 12 animals per group treated with 100, 300, 500 mg/kg concentrations of the extract and distilled water, respectively. The body weights of the animals were taken at regular intervals and their serum analysed weekly to ascertain the biochemical activities of ALP, ALT and AST. The LD50 of the extract indicated a very high safety profile with no mortality. There was no significant (P ˃ 0.05) difference in the weights of the animals after treatment except for 500 mg/kg which exhibited a significant (P ˂ 0.05) decrease from day 8 up to day 23. Generally, there was a significant increase in the serum level of ALP and ALT with respect to time and concentration in the test groups except for AST which showed a concentration dependent decrease. However, the control had the highest serum level of the analyzed enzymes which were significantly (P˂0.05) higher than the test groups. The result concludes that dried carpels of A.senegalensis possess no significant toxic effects which justifies why the local dwellers in northern Nigeria have been utilizing it as part of their foodstuff without obvious complaints or toxicity. The consumption dried carpels of Annona senegalensis as part of their food stuff for its hepatoprotective property and hypolipidemic effect should be encouraged.

Keywords: Annona Senegalensis, Carpels, Enzymes, Methanolic Extract, Toxicity

Effect of Artesunate on Liver Functions of the Wister Rat (Published)

Antimalarial drug toxicity is viewed different, depending on if the clinical indication is for treatment or prophylaxis. In drug therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which has a high mortality if untreated, a greater risk of adverse reactions to antimalarial medication is inevitable. The effect of the administration of Artesunate on the liver of wistar rats was studied. Study design was experimental and deployed clinical laboratory assessments. Four groups of wistar rats, each of five animals weighing between 100-150 g were used. Group 1 served as the control and was administered normal feed and drinking water. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 0.24mg/kg, 0.34mg/kg and 76mg/kg body weight Artesunate daily respectively, orally for four weeks. Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities and Bilirubin were determined at the end of the treatment. Results showed that in group 3 and 4, there was a significant increase in serum AST and ALT and a significant decrease in serum ALP. The results also showed that at mild doses (0.24mg/kg and 0.34mg/kg), Artesunate promoted weight gain and at highest dose (76mg/kg), it appeared to result in reduced percentage weight gain suggesting perhaps that high doses were toxic. It is concluded, that administration of high doses of Artesunate by the oral route produced considerable damage to the liver.

Keywords: Artesunate, Enzymes, Malaria, Wister Rat, serum