Small Organic Farming: The Case of Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) Value Chain in São Tomé and Príncipe (Published)
Organic agriculture, in addition to supporting environmental sustainability, has been a meaningful way to protect and develop small farming in developing regions. The changes that have occurred within the value chain, such as increases in global standards and the effect of globalisation, have created an increase in both opportunities and risks for smallholders. In the developing countries, mainly on African continent organic agriculture beyond being less researched than in the developed ones, there are constraints related to scale, certification policies, strategies, and the fact that most farmers remain in informal circuits. This paper presents a study of the pepper value chain in São Tomé e Príncipe, which is divided into two categories: certified organic producers, affiliated (Aff) to the Cooperative of Pepper and Vanilla Export (CEPIBA) and non-certified organic pepper, non-affiliated farmers (Naf). The study presents the strategy to promote organic farming through the value chain and a brief comparison among certified and non-certified organic producers. The results showed that Aff perform better than Naf because they have financial stability and apply sustainable practices that are more productive and provide better income, while Naf generally practice subsistence farming with the exception of some medium enterprises.
The Dynamics of Inflations in Nigeria as They Impact on the Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria (Published)
The dynamics of inflation in Nigeria have affected various sectors. This paper sets out to examine how core and non-core (food) inflations in Nigeria have affected the environmental quality of Enugu Metropolis. Factor Analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor score known as the ‘Y’ variable. The inflation rates of core and Non-core inflations in Nigeria for various years were used as the inflation variables (X1 and X2 respectively). The environmental quality variable was the dependent variable while inflation variables served as independent variables. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the relationship between the environmental quality variable and core and Non-core inflation variables. The results showed that in the coefficient of determination, adjusted r2 = 0.958, indicating that 95.8% variation in the dependent variable (environmental quality) can be predicted from the independent variable (Core and Non-Core inflations). The environmental quality of Enugu metropolis was negatively impacted by the changes in core and Non-Core inflations in Nigeria. Encouragement of residential property development in various dimensions among others has been recommended to help ameliorate the situation.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Food packaging is an essential medium for preserving the food quality and minimising food wastage. When packaging waste is not properly handled or disposed, they have adverse or harmful effect on human health and also constitute environment, social and economic hazard. The study focused on the strategies for environmental protection against food packaging waste in Enugu state. Specifically, the study was designed to find out how recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes. A survey design was used for the study and questionnaire was used for data collection. The population of the study was 300 workers of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA). The data collected were analysed using mean and frequency, hypothesis was tested using chi square at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that; recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes help in the environmental protection in Enugu state. It was recommended that; entrepreneurship should be encouraged in the area of recycling and reusing of food packaging wastes. It was also recommended that Enugu state government should encourage companies to design their product for re-use, recyclability and material reduction and those individuals should be encouraged to be environmental friendly.
This study which benefits from reconnaissance surveys and recent literature on spatial degradation examines the environmental and anthropogenic challenges in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. It argues that the visible environmental restrictions posed by hydro-climatic, vegetal, and geomorphic related occurrences are not significant to prohibit the development of the region. Specifically, the study observes that anthropogenic activities which strongly defied sound environmental principles are accountable for the protracted spate of environmental pollution, cycle of underdevelopment, unemployment, widespread poverty, occurrence of diseases, and human rights violations in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. Based on its findings, the study recommends a number of realistic measures to reposition the region towards the path of sustainable development. These measures include urgent remediation of vastly polluted environment, routine monitoring of the region using satellite remote sensing, adequate infrastructural provisions matched with effective maintenance culture, amendments of mineral derivation, control and utilization laws, provision of reliable jobs to the immediate communities, and harnessing of hydro-climatic resources for permanent safety of the region’s infrastructures. These measures require the integrated efforts of different environmental experts and authentic cooperation of indigenous communities, crude oil industries and the federal government of Nigeria to succeed.
Assessment of Functional and Environmental Indicators in the Performance of Buildings in Federal Universities of South East Nigeria (Published)
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the extent to which functional and environmental measures/indicators are expressed in the performance of Educational buildings in Universities of South East Nigeria and recommend measures for improved understanding and practice. Literature review was used to provide a clear understanding of the constructs of functionality and environmental performance in buildings. A questionnaire relating to the diverse contents of these constructs was developed and administered to a convenient sample of staff and students of some Federal universities under investigation. Data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using Excel and statistica; Version 9.0. The study suggests that majority of the respondents (staff and students) were generally dissatisfied with the functional and environmental performance of their building facilities. Information about the design and use of specific buildings were imprecise and therefore not usually identified in the institutions studied. The functionality and environmental concerns of most of the building spaces such as classrooms, offices and residential accommodations were found to be poor. Hence, the interaction between users and building spaces did not add value to learning and working experiences. The findings point to the conclusion that functional efficiency and environmental performance goals seem not have been explicitly expressed in the design of most buildings investigated. The study points to the need for designers and facilities managers in these institutions to acquire skills on critical aspects of building performance evaluation, particularly, the recognition of environmental and functional concerns/indicators as means of meeting the increasing demand for higher quality by stakeholders in the education sector.