Testing the Environmental Kuznet curve in selected West African countries: Empirical Evidence Estimation (Published)
Environmental economics studied has become increasingly most popular in local and international communities. This is due to the fact that we are currently facing pressing issues about climate change effects in our planet. In this paper we empirical testing the environmental kuznet curve hypothesis by analysis the relationship between environmental quality (Proxy carbon (VI) oxide (CO2) emission per capita) and per capita income. The panel estimation such as fixed effect and random effect were applied. From the results, the fixed effect model for CO2 revealed that population density, per capita income, per capita income squared, trade openness, exchange rate(real effective exchange rate proxy), and agriculture were statistically significant. The negative coefficient indicated in the following variables-agriculture, exchange rate, and trade openness. Any percentage increases in those variables, reduces the Environmental quality (proxy CO2) in selected West African countries. The results further indicated that trade openness lead to an increases in environmental pollution by improving key economic activities such as mining, which may reduce CO2 per capita emission in the selected West Africa countries. For the population density has positive and significant effects on environmental quality and has the a-priori expectation in our model.
Actions of people lead to environmental degradations which in turn affect human growth and development. Human actions arise out of human’s perception of the environment as a resource for satisfying human needs. This reveals that environmental problems are behavior problems. The paper therefore recommends environmental education as a tool for making Nigerian citizens environmental literate which would engender action and activities that will lead to environmental sustainability in Nigeria. It concludes that environmental education organized in formal, non-formal and informal contexts should be taken seriously in order to make the citizens environmentally literate.