Right to a healthy environment is an inalienable right of man because it is a fundamental human right. The environment is devastated by anthropogenic and natural factors to the extent that man no longer feels safe, as his health and general wellbeing are under unspeakable threats. His right to a clean environment is therefore implicit in right to life since a clean and hazards-free environment determines man’s existence to freely and with sound health harness the numerous natural resources he is endowed with, and also enjoy other rights. The right to life implying the right to live in a clean environment forms the basis of the existentiality of the entire man’s rights duly recognized and protected by law both at the international and domestic sphere, such as the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights of 1981, the Rio Conference of 1992, and the Constitutions and Bill of Rights of States across the globe, including Nigeria, with provisions on the right to a clean and healthy environment as a right to life. The courts of various states have also provided legal redresses and remedies to victims of violation of environmental rights and severally interpreted the right to life to include the right to a clean environment and well being. Nigeria has a constitutional provision on the right to life under section 33 of the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, as part of the numerous fundamental rights provided for under chapter IV of the said constitution. There are still other provisions on environmental protection in Nigeria, particularly section 20 of the constitution. This work spotlights the rights to health and right to life in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to environmental protection in Nigeria, pointing out the deficiencies, weakness or otherwise, if any, in the provisions of the Nigeria Constitution and suggesting remedies and pathways. It also considers the constitutional provisions and judicial decisions of other jurisdictions within and outside Africa, on the right to a healthy environment and also gives a brief comparative analysis of the legal positions in Nigeria and that of other jurisdictions, ostensibly to ascertain whether or not the Nigerian legal pendulum is tilted towards international best standards and practices.
This current research study finds out the impact of different types of determinants/predictors on the consumer purchase intention of consumers in Sargodha city. And also theoretical representation is planned & depending on pragmatic authentication by make the use of a analysis. The study consequences obtained in one of the Pakistan’s city (Sargodha) offer logical hold used for the soundness Of a planned representation/model. Exclusively the result obtained from correlation & Simple linear regression subsequently multiple Regression analysis validate the impact of consumer satisfaction, environmental protection, consumer awareness and consumer behavior on consumers purchase intention. The in order, also seem to affect consumer purchase intention while the current conclusion give a superior appreciative of the procedure and considerable previous circumstances of consumer purchase intention. It is considerable moderate function of customer satisfaction variable into consumer’s practice. While the conclusion propose with the aim of respondent has a highly optimistic approach on the subject of GREEN product & be prepared on the way to obtain Green products added frequently, however The product’s price & superiority is apprehensive, Green product have to present competitivelly immediately similar to the customary products. This cram also discuss How the current result might assists the government of Pakistan & green Marketer in the direction of regulate their programs related to environment.
Communities’s Willingness to Pay for Protection of Environmental Resources from Oil Spillage in Delta State: A Contingent Valuation Approach (Published)
Despite the huge benefit crude oil has to the Nigerian economy, its exploration and exploitation activities have resulted in severe incidence of oil spills that has impact on the environment. The paper examined the willingness to pay for protection of environmental resources damage caused by oil spillage in Uzere and Emadadja communities in Delta State. 330 questionnaire were administered on the residents in the communities out of which 250 of the questionnaire were returned for analysis representing 76% response rate. The data collected were analysed using the Frequency Distribution, and Binary Logistic Regression Model based on the Contingent Valuation Method. The Frequency Distribution was used to determine the socio–economic characteristics of the residents while the Binary Logistic Model based on the Contingent Valuation Model was used to calculate the total benefit and explain the socio – economic factors influencing the communities’ willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental resources. The results showed that majority of the respondents were willing to pay for environmental protection. The mean WTP was N948,018 per respondents. Also, religion (2.826), household size (3.103) and nature of job (5.715) were the important socio – economic factors that influenced the respondents willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental resources protection. The paper recommended that government should do all within its power to protect environmental resources of its citizens as this will enhance the peoples sense of belonging in the country and the communities in particular.