Physiochemical Factors Affecting Macrobenthic Invertebrates Disribution in the Bottom Sediments of Okhuo River (Published)
Nigerian benthos has been concentrated on the benthic fauna of urban and semi urban areas; consequently, the rural waters have been abandoned. The taxonomy of Nigerian streams is poorly known and this probably contributes to the reluctance to carry out researches in these areas. The macrobenthic invertebrates of a perturbed urban section of the Ikpoba River, showed that the stress caused by human activities affected species diversity and abundance on the benthic fauna of New Calabar River, in Cross River State. The study showed that the diversity of the fauna was low, with only 23 taxa recorded. The fauna was dominated by Annelid (Polychaete and Oligochaete) that constitutes 54% of the population. Investigation shows the effect of salinity and other physicochemical factors in abundance and distribution of littoral invertebrates in a coastal lagoon of southern examined flora and fauna associated with water hyacinth in Yewa River, in Ondo State. Studies of the benthic fauna associated with different microhabitats in mangrove forest of the Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, and Nigeria showed that the number of species associated with a particular habitat was similar but the community structure differed distinctly.
Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Surface Mining in Udege District Nasarawa State Nigeria. (Review Completed - Accepted)
The mining industry remains the backbone of many economies in the developing world. This paper has examined the socio-economic and associated environmental impacts of surface mining in Udege District Nasarawa, The study established the local mining methods, examined the socio-economic and environmental impacts of surface and illegal mining on the host communities, and assessed the benefits of surface mining in the study area. The study used both primary data and secondary data in constructing the quantitative and qualitative data base. Primary data were obtained by means of focus group discussion (FGD), questionnaires administration and participants’ observation. However out of 150 questionnaires administered, 125 were validated by respondents for statistical analyses. Socio-economic responses enlisted from the respondents in the study area were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis and the “Chokor” severity scale; the socio-economic concerns were gauged on a scale of 1-5. The mining methods identified in the study area are determined by certain factors which included the position and the alignment of the volcanic veins containing the minerals, the nature of the implements used and the availability of water. Among the methods used to extract minerals in the study area include: the “Hydraulitiking and grave pumping” methods, “cafanchaning” method, “Loto” method and the “Ground sluice” method. The mining process involves the random sinking of mining pits for the exploitation of the tin and columbite, with devastating effect on the environment as opened pits are not covered after mining. The activity which is rudimentary and non-regulated contributes to secondary devastation of the arable land with resultant effects on the land, ecosystem, and health threads to inhabitants. The overall after-math effect lives much to be desired in terms of environmental degradation, potential health hazards and ground water pollution amongst others.The study found abandoned pits and heaps of sand, deforestation and uprooting of trees at mining sites, and pollution of community water sources as the most environmental concerns in the study area, while other issues like collapse of building and chemical effects were voted absent in the study area. More so, four (4) socio-economic issues which include truancy in school attendance reduce farming activities, water pollution and other health related risks were ranked as serious and very serious in the community. The most serious issue on the scale is water pollution which in turns informs other health related risks. In terms of benefits, 35% of respondents benefited from mining as a source of employment; 33% in income generation, while 15% from increased marketing of farm produce. The result of the analyzes showed that consequences of mining activities were not limited to distortion of soil landscape but also included extinction of some animals, poor agricultural productivity, health problems, lack of education, communal conflicts, land degradation, mine pits and other structural damages. The impact of these changes has restricted most host community, who depend on agriculture for subsistence, from advancing and improving their livelihoods.
It is a well-known fact that tourism is a sector that can contribute to the economic growth of a region. Moreover, tourism produces social benefits to the region (i.e. small and medium-sized enterprises’ development, creation of new jobs, improvement of infrastructure etc.). Culturally, tourism is said to be an element of community enrichment, thanks to the meeting of different cultures. Also tourism can positively contribute to the maintenance of a natural environment by protecting, creating or maintaining national parks or other protected areas. This paper focuses on the tourism sector and its impacts on the economy, environment, politics and the socio-cultural being of the host community. The main aim of this research is to highlight the well-organized and managed economic impacts by host communities on the host community.