Tag Archives: Environment

Assessment Criteria for Ngos In Reference to the Study of Ngos of Nepal (Published)

Introduction: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are working to facilitate and support the development activities in every sector to achieve the development goals of Nepal Government. While facing difficulty to reach different areas, contributions of NGO become the significant and milestone for the change and development of the society. This study was conducted in Karnali Zone, Midwestern Development Region of Nepal. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop the NGO assessment criteria. Methodology: This study was particularly based on the pragmatism philosophy. Deductive approach was used to test the theory. Cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory research design was adopted. Study was conducted among the beneficiaries, NGOs executive board, NGOs staff, Civil Society and Governmental Officials in Karnali Zone. A total of 562 respondents were selected for survey and 45 key informants were interviewed, 15 case studies were prepared, 15 focus group discussions were conducted and 56 observations were done in 56 NGOs and 15 communities. The qualitative analysis was done to develop the criteria. Results: There were four major indicators; structure, environment, value and impact. The total sub-indicators were 25 which finally increased to 33 but main elements were the same. Under the sub-indicators, there were 74 indicators in the Civil Society Index (CSI) which were applied in the field of research as a theoretical guideline of the study. the study developed 137 criterias; 14 indicators came from existing criteria of Civil Society Index, 70 new added, 53 modified and 3 existing criteria was removed. Further researchers can evaluate the impact of performance of NGO by using the NGO assessment criteria developed by this study.

Keywords: Assessment Criteria, Civil Society Index (CSI), Environment, Impact, NGO Structure, Value

Cross River Tourism, History and Environment: A Marriage Contracted In the Womb of Time (Published)

Today, it can be safely argued that Cross River State is noted more for its tourism enterprise than for anything else. Since 1999 to date, there have been sustained efforts by successive administrations to re-engineer and rebrand the State as a tourism spectacle and hub not just in the Cross River Region but in Nigeria and indeed, the West Africa Sub-region at large. This paper seeks to show that there is an organic and inescapable relationship between Cross River’s current tourism efforts and its history and environment. Put differently, we would attempt to demonstrate that the foundation of Cross River tourism is embedded in its history and environment and it is from these pristine bowels that the current initiatives can truly find rhythm, momentum and relevance.

Keywords: Cross River, Environment, Nigeria, Tourism, history

Environmental Management and Control Education in Nigeria (Published)

The application of sophisticated technology in a laissez- faire economy to provide for the diverse needs of ever increasing population led to series of environmental stress and crises. The magnitude and complexity of these environmental problems evoked the raising of alarm from various quarters calling for urgent attention to the myriads of environmental problem issues, if man’s survival will be guaranteed. These alarms created the pressure that later gave rise to environmental management and control discipline and profession. In practical terms, environmental management and control is multi-disciplinary in scope and requires the training of crops of professionals that will be equipped with critical and analytical skills to provide both preventive and corrective measures to address all dimensions of environmental problems. Thus, the environmental and control education aims at training and producing competent personnel that will be intellectually equipped with sufficient and relevant theoretical and technical knowledge as well as skills for dealing with the problems caused by developmental projects and also who will possess the multi-disciplinary perspectives to team up with other professionals to achieve sustainable development in various aspects of human endeavours. Regrettably, it is only 30 out of 107 Universities and other 52 degree/HND/NCE awarding tertiary institutions in Nigeria that offer environmental management and control education. This is abysmally too low and poor which partly explains why environmental problems appear intractable in Nigeria. For sustainable development to become feasible and realizable in Nigeria, environmental education must be made compulsory in all tertiary levels of education as well as in pre-tertiary schools. Environmental management graduates are trained to work in the public and non-public establishments and as well as possess adequate skills to set up their private consultancy firms and become employers of labour.

Keywords: Education, Environment, Management, developmental projects., multi-disciplinary, preventive and corrective measures

Assessment Criteria for Ngos In Reference To the Study of Ngos of Nepal (Published)

Introduction: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are working to facilitate and support the development activities in every sector to achieve the development goals of Nepal Government. While facing difficulty to reach different areas, contributions of NGO become the significant and milestone for the change and development of the society. This study was conducted in Karnali Zone, Midwestern Development Region of Nepal. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop the NGO assessment criteria. Methodology: This study was particularly based on the pragmatism philosophy. Deductive approach was used to test the theory. Cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory research design was adopted. Study was conducted among the beneficiaries, NGOs executive board, NGOs staff, Civil Society and Governmental Officials in Karnali Zone. A total of 562 respondents were selected for survey and 45 key informants were interviewed, 15 case studies were prepared, 15 focus group discussions were conducted and 56 observations were done in 56 NGOs and 15 communities. The qualitative analysis was done to develop the criteria. Results: There were four major indicators; structure, environment, value and impact. The total sub-indicators were 25 which finally increased to 33 but main elements were the same. Under the sub-indicators, there were 74 indicators in the Civil Society Index (CSI) which were applied in the field of research as a theoretical guideline of the study. the study developed 137 criterias; 14 indicators came from existing criteria of Civil Society Index, 70 new added, 53 modified and 3 existing criteria was removed. Further researchers can evaluate the impact of performance of NGO by using the NGO assessment criteria developed by this study.

Keywords: Assessment Criteria, Civil Society Index (CSI), Environment, Impact, NGO Structure, Value

Development of Green Energy Saving Mechanisms (Published)

Geothermal energy is the natural heat that exists within the earth and that can be absorbed by fluids occurring within, or introduced into, the crystal rocks. Although, geographically, this energy has local concentrations, its distribution globally is widespread. The amount of heat that is, theoretically, available between the earth’s surface and a depth of 5 km is around 140 x 1024 joules. Of this, only a fraction (5 x 1021 joules) can be regarded as having economic prospects within the next five decades, and only about 500 x 1018 joules is likely to be exploited by the year 2020. Three main techniques used to exploit the heat available are: geothermal aquifers, hot dry rocks and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The GSHPs play a key role in geothermal development in Central and Northern Europe. With borehole heat exchangers as heat source, they offer de-central geothermal heating at virtually any location, with great flexibility to meet given demands. In the vast majority of systems, no space cooling is included, leaving the GSHPs with some economic constraints. Nevertheless, a promising market development first occurred in Switzerland and Sweden, and now also is obvious in Austria and Germany. Approximately 20 years of R&D focusing on borehole heat exchangers resulted in a well-established concept of sustainability for this technology, as well as in sound design and installation criteria. The market success brought Switzerland to the third rank worldwide in geothermal direct use. The future prospects are good, with an increasing range of applications including large systems with thermal energy storage for heating and cooling, The GSHPs in densely populated development areas, borehole heat exchangers for cooling of telecommunication equipment, etc. This communication reviews some interactions between buildings and environment. The correct assessment of climate helps to create buildings, which are successful in their external environment, while knowledge of sick buildings helps to avoid unsuccessful internal environments. The sections on energy conservation and green buildings suggest how the correct design and use of buildings can help to improve total environment.

Keywords: Environment, GREEN buildings, Ground Source Heat Pump

The Extent of Response to the Social Responsibility Accounting in Tourism Sector: A Case of Jordan (Published)

This study aims at identifying the extent to which the tourism sector in Jordan responds to the accounting for the social responsibility. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a questionnaire has been used to collect the necessary data from 50 participants who have been randomly selected from the field of accounting in the southern region hotels. The statistical results show that there is a clear response from the tourist hotels toward their social responsibility in human resource development on the one hand and toward the preservation of the environment on the other. The study concludes with a number of recommendations including: the need for continuous efforts to meet the social responsibilities, working to keep up with any new requirements, paying more attention to human resources in the surrounding communities, increasing attention to reserves, and providing more support to the community through having a role in creating some attractive tourist environment such as resorts and artificial lakes that will help in prolonging the period of stay of tourists which in turn will reflect positively on those hotels.

Keywords: CSR accounting, Environment, Ethics, Human resource, Tourist Hotels

Study of Biofouling in Books Stored At the Archive of the Library of Shumen University (Published)

The aims of this paper were to study the biofouling and biodeterioration of books stored at the Archive of the library of Shumen University, Bulgaria, and to carry out the physiological characterization of isolated fungi and bacteria. Also the role of the environmental microbiota in the biofouling formation was studied. Microbial assemblages on documents were sampled by sedimentation method as described by Omeliansky. Biofouling were monitored by microscope and stereomicroscope OPTIKA (Italy). Large microbial assemblages were found at archive with the prevalence of genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium. Most of the fungi degraded cellulose and produced pigments and acids, and all of the isolated bacteria had proteolytic and/or cellulolytic activity. In shed a higher concentration of viable bacteria than of fungi was isolated. The existence of this bacterial genus in the Library of Shumen University indicates that the faulty ventilation system needs to be repaired and suitable anti-dust filters to be set.

Keywords: Archives, Biodeterioration, Environment, Microorganisms, Paper

The Influence of Legitimacy and Marketing in the Context of Accounting for the Environment in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Published)

Purpose – The paper intends to serve as a contribution to the requirements for organizations to account for and disclose the social and environmental (SE) consequences of their activities, aspects of the concept of sustainability accounting (SA). In particular, this research study investigates the current practices of environmental accounting (EA), whether it is influenced by the same values as that of society and is used as a marketing tool of the oil and gas sector in Uganda, a less developed country. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 57 oil and petroleum supply chains. Major data collection methods included a review of 13 annual reports/statements by oil companies and both a structured and a semi-structured questionnaire involving 272 respondents, with a response rate of 57.0%. A mixed-methodological approach was employed to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data together. Findings – (1) There are no detailed archival records related to EA; (2) respondents’ (106) responses to the possible consequences of not accounting for the environment were almost indifferent on issues that influence marketing, indicated by the small differences in the mean (1.83 to 2.50) and standard deviations (0.504 to 0.925); (3) responses on the influence of legitimacy and marketing on accounting for the environment ranged from 8.3% to 90.0%, while the mean ranged from 1.92 to 3.90 and the standard deviations from 0.303 to 1.482; (4) we suggest that EA is currently not being done, which is an indicator of poor management of the environment; (5) the results support that a marketing tool is not a significant determining factor of accounting for the environment, despite having a social role to fulfill; and (6) the results do support the theory of legitimacy, because oil and petroleum products suppliers in the country respond to environmental laws, regulations and guidelines. Originality/value – The highlighted perspective on how organizations account for and disclose the environmental trends of their activities – an aspect of the concept of SA in Uganda, a country with a youthful population, open markets, abundant resources and significant unexploited oil and gas reserves – distinguishes this study from others on similar topics.

Keywords: Environment, Legitimacy., Marketing, oil and gas sector, sub-Saharan Africa, sustainability accounting

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A MULTILINGUAL AND A MONOLINGUAL ENVIRONMET – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH” (Published)

The study focuses on the influence of English language in Macedonia, which is a multilingual, multicultural, and multiethnic country, situated in Southeast Europe. More precisely, the study investigates and compares the role of English inside and outside the classroom in two different environments. Firstly, in Tetovo as a multilingual place where quite a lot of people very easily shift from the local languages in use (Albanian, Macedonian and Turkish) and English when necessary, and secondly, in Prilep, as a mainly monolingual place, where from the local languages, mostly Macedonian is used. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data collection includes learners’ questionnaires. The qualitative data phase includes descriptive research by using interviews. Finally, the study identifies several important issues regarding the positive and negative influence of English and compares the participants’ attitudes towards the role and the influence of English in a multilingual vs. monolingual environment. The findings of the study are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and wider, the local government, educational institutions, current and future English teachers and students.

Keywords: Classroom, English, Environment, Influence, monolingual, multilingual

EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND RESPONSES IN THE CONDUIT TO SUSTAINABILITY ACCOUNTING IN AN AFRICAN COUNTRY (Published)

The purpose of this study is to explore environmental impacts and responses in Uganda, an African country where a sustainability accounting approach is of growing significance and relevance. This is still a relatively new field of practice as well as a new academic endeavor, and thus entails originality. Oil and petroleum and energy-sector activities are generally key ingredients in the fast-growing economy, and are in the categories of being high risk with immensely negative social and environmental impacts. Petroleum companies dominate the top taxpayers in the country, which justifies a focus on the oil industry sector. This study is conceived as an improvement on one of the objectives of a wider study by the first author that investigated the relations among legitimacy, marketing and environmental accounting practices, focusing on oil companies in Uganda. Data collection methods included analysis of the way in which environmental accounting is developed and assessment of the credibility of inputs at various levels. Other data collection methods included a review of companies’ environmental reports/statements and ethnographic interviews at oil companies, formal and informal garages and filling stations. A questionnaire was also administered to 155 respondents drawn from 57 oil supply chains. Our major findings are that the main negative impacts on the environment in all oil marketing chains were soil and water pollution. There is an emphasis on profit margins at the expense of environmental factors in an equatorial country that induces climate change. The study results add to the body of knowledge on sustainability accounting to mitigate the environmental problems in place and minimize further occurrences. We suggest that future accountants need to understand and have knowledge of sustainability issues and how they can be captured in reports for a sustainable future.

Keywords: Africa, Environment, Uganda, impacts and resources, oil companies, sustainability accounting

CIVIL LIABILITY ARISING FROM DAMAGE FROM ENVIRONMENT (Published)

To talk about the environmental beauty and to leave aside its legal protection, would mean to deny its rights for protection and progress. It is our right to be a part of the environment, to use and to taste it, likewise it is our obligation to protect and develop it at any time and place. The rapid technological development, population growth, industrialization, carbon dioxide emissions augmentation in the atmosphere and other ‘greenhouse’ gases, cutting of the forests, new various pollutants used in the cultivation of land and sea etc., pose serious global threat to the climate system and the global ecosystem. Due to all these factors careful attention must be paid to the protection of the abovementioned elements, the damage of which can cause unexpected and devastating changes on the world’s climate and therefore harm the human health or life. After the 90s, especially in the recent years, a growing attention has been given to environmental issues and the various measures have been taken in order to protect it and reduce its damage. This was legitimized with the entry into force of Law no. 8934, dated 05.09.2002 “On environmental protection”, Article 2 of which makes it clear that the protection of the environment from pollution and other damages has been declared a national priority. From the law perspective the environmental protection is an interactive process between individuals, organizations and government. Despite the protection guaranteed by the Constitution in Articles 56 and 59/d and the special law for the protection of the environment, the object of this paper is an analysis of the civil legislation in force in Albania, concerning the issue of environmental damage and the responsibility in these cases. The legislation of this field will be analyzed bearing in mind these issues: the definition of environmental damage, the legitimacy of the procedure, the reasons, the criteria for compensation, and the insurance issues in the event of environmental damage

Keywords: Albanian Civil Code., Environment, civil legal protection, health damage

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA (Published)

The application of sophisticated technology in a laissez- faire economy to provide for the diverse needs of ever increasing population led to series of environmental stress and crises. The magnitude and complexity of these environmental problems evoked the raising of alarm from various quarters calling for urgent attention to the myriads of environmental problem issues, if man’s survival will be guaranteed. These alarms created the pressure that later gave rise to environmental management and control discipline and profession. In practical terms, environmental management and control is multi-disciplinary in scope and requires the training of crops of professionals that will be equipped with critical and analytical skills to provide both preventive and corrective measures to address all dimensions of environmental problems. Thus, the environmental and control education aims at training and producing competent personnel that will be intellectually equipped with sufficient and relevant theoretical and technical knowledge as well as skills for dealing with the problems caused by developmental projects and also who will possess the multi-disciplinary perspectives to team up with other professionals to achieve sustainable development in various aspects of human endeavours. Regrettably, it is only 30 out of 107 Universities and other 52 degree/HND/NCE awarding tertiary institutions in Nigeria that offer environmental management and control education. This is abysmally too low and poor which partly explains why environmental problems appear intractable in Nigeria. For sustainable development to become feasible and realizable in Nigeria, environmental education must be made compulsory in all tertiary levels of education as well as in pre-tertiary schools. Environmental management graduates are trained to work in the public and non-public establishments and as well as possess adequate skills to set up their private consultancy firms and become employers of labour.

Keywords: Education, Environment, Management, developmental projects., multi-disciplinary, preventive and corrective measures

ENVIRONMENTAL SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY NEEDS IN NIGERIA (Published)

Solar energy technology and development in Nigeria is still at its rudimentary stage. The population is very optimistic that solar energy would offer a great alternative to the nation’s overall energy needs. Nigeria is well located within the humid tropics and equatorial axis with abundant sunshine, high radiation intensity, vast open spaces for areal energy capture and great opportunities for solar energy technologies. Experiences from some advanced countries of the world like USA, Australia, Germany and Switzerland indicate that a solar energy plant is capital intensive and requires large areas of capture. Solar energy, as a renewable natural energy resource offers mankind with variety of direct and indirect solar energy technologies. The direct solar energy varieties include photovoltaic and solar thermal, among others, while the indirect solar energy varieties include hydropower, wind power and so on. In general, the country is in great need for solar energy varieties for her domestic, commercial, educational, agricultural and industrial energy needs.

Keywords: Energy Technology, Environment, Nigeria, Solar

ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIERS AND JOB PLACEMENT OF THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED IN ORGANIZATIONS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

This work focused on “Environmental Barriers and Job Placement of the Physically Challenged in Work Organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria”. The purpose was to investigate the extent to which the physical environment of work organizations posses as a challenged for the inclusion to the physically challenged in work organizations six selected organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria. The pilot survey, simple random sampling techniques, questionnaires were employed to select respondents. Primary and secondary data were used in the collection of data. Five research questions were raised. In analyzing data that addressed the research questions the descriptive method of analysis was used. The findings of the study includes: lack of policies and practices; Negative public perception; barriers of physical environment; discrimination; lack of records and on the job challenge. Based on these findings the study recommends among others that there should be domestic policies backed by appropriate legislation which will favour employment of the physically challenged; elaborate elimination of physical environmental barriers to enhance access to employment; promotion and sensitization of advocacy groups to enhance the protection of the rights and privileges of the physically challenged.

Keywords: Barriers, Environment, Job Placement, Nigeria, Physically Challenged, Rivers State, Workplace

COUNSELOR AND COUNSELING FACILITIES FOR CONDUCIVE COUNSELING ENVIRONMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOUTHERN EDUCATIONAL ZONE IN CROSS RIVER STATE (Published)

This study investigated counseling for conducive environment in Southern Educational Zone in Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose, two hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Survey research design was adopted with a sample of 100 school counselors and 300 students randomly selected. The selection was done through simple random sampling technique. The counselor/student opinion questionnaire was the instrument used for the data collection. The reliability of the instrument was established through the split-half method of Spearman Brown Prophecy formula and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis was employed to test the hypotheses under study. The result of the analysis revealed that the school counselor and counseling facilities are significantly related with conducive environment for counseling. Based on the findings, it was recommended that adequate facilities as well as trained and devoted counselors be provided in all secondary schools in the study area.

Keywords: Environment, conducive, counseling, counselor, facilities, schools

ENERGY CRISIS AND ITS EFFECTS ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA (Published)

Studies before now have linked various environmental challenges to human activities. The human activities do not exclude efforts put forth by humans in the search for, production and utilization of various forms of energy resources. The value attached to a particular energy resource determines its rate of demand which determines its rate of production and consumption. The consumption of any form of energy resource commonly in use determines its cost which determines its rate of availability to its end-users. The cost of energy resources on which the availability depends defines the phenomenon of energy crisis. This paper x-rays the dynamics of energy crisis and reveals its effects on Nigeria’s national development. It establishes that environmental education is a veritable tool for tackling the phenomenon of energy crisis in Nigeria. The paper recommends that environmental education shall be designed to educate and re-orientate its audiences on the implications of their activities on the environment and as well encourage and motivate them to participate actively in activities directed toward the protection, improvement, management, restoration and conservation of the Nigerian environment.

Keywords: Development, Energy Crisis, Energy Poverty, Environment, Environmental Education.

EVALUATION OF SIX CHINESE MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) VARIETIES IN THE HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT OF CALABAR, SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA. (Published)

Six hybrid Chinese maize varieties with a local best were evaluated for their growth and yield performance with a view to adoption in South east agroecological zone of Nigeria. A Randomised Complete Block (RCBD) Design was used. The cultivars did not differ (p ≤0.05) significantly in some growth parameters, this included emergence percentage at 5DAP (days after planting), plant height at both 4WAP and 6WAP (weeks after planting). Tasseling and silking differed significantly, the exotic varieties tassled and silked better than the control at 8WAP and 10WAP respectively. The only significantly different yield parameters were the length and weight of undehusked cobs, circumference of dehusked cobs. The exotic varieties matured earlier than the control between 11 to 14WAP and 16WAP respectively. There was no significant difference in the grain yield between the maize varieties. The Chinese varieties did not show a marked difference in grain yield compared to the local

Keywords: Environment, Evaluation, Growth, Humid Tropics, Maize, Variety Trial, Yield

PROMOTING GREEN PURCHASE BEHAVIOR TO THE YOUTH (CASE OF BAHRAIN) (Published)

Promoting green purchase behavior means encouraging and persuading people to buy environmental friendly products. By adopting green marketing, firms can emphasize their social responsibility and promote their businesses as friends of the environment. Going green depends on boosting green purchases through effective promotional campaigns. To achieve this goal, firms need to identify the determinants of their customers’ green purchase behavior. This study was conducted on 243 youths in Bahrain; it examined the impact of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and concerns on shaping and boosting green purchase behavior. The findings of this study revealed that the youth in Bahrain have poor knowledge and concern and rather positive attitudes about the environment. The study also found that the three determinant variables (knowledge, concern, and attitudes) are positively associated with green buying behavior and that they play a significant role in shaping green buying behavior.

Keywords: Environment, Environmental Concern, Green Promotion, Green Purchase

Dis/Harmony Between Nature and Culture in Herbert De Lisser’s Jane’s Career (Published)

This article explores the broad ecocritical perspectives represented in De lisser’s Jane’s Career (1914). The study is located in the environmental and cultural histories of the Caribbean. It evocates the interrelationships between nature and culture based on the broader view of the concept of ‘environment’  by the second wave ecocritics to make the theory applicable to urban setting. It enables ecocriticism to place human culture in relation to the urban natural world as it goes beyond the nature-culture divide to the ways man and nature are harmoniously constitutive in an environment (built and unbuilt). This is, the environmental thoughts and actions of the characters are interpreted in relation to the exploitation of nature and women, and also, the harmonious coexistence of man with nature. It is discovered through the examination of the nature-culture interrelationship that environmentality is a feature of urban settlement. The analysis done using that tens touches issues of colonialism, environmental, ecofeminism and identity formation in the Caribbean

Keywords: Ecocriticism, Ecofeminism, Environment, Nature

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA (Published)

The paper examined the municipal solid waste disposal methods and the environmental issues associated with the management of solid waste in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through administration of structured questionnaires to a random size of population in the areas that have the highest heaps of solid waste on the major streets and open spaces. Oral interviews and field observations were also carried out for holistic and detail assessment of the environment. Secondary data were obtained from desk review method; information on environmental issues resulting from poor management of municipal solid waste were obtained from relevant literatures. The results of the findings clearly show that major streets, several open spaces and even water ways are been used as refuse dump sites. The composition of the municipal solid waste in the city is heterogeneous; it contained both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials which are mostly e-wastes, plastic and polythene materials. The study also reveals that most of the refuse dumps are left unattended to for a long period. The study further shows that population growth and uncontrolled urban expansion are responsible for the continuous growth of these refuse heaps at the shoulders of the major streets, open spaces and water bodies. There is no organized house to house or street to street collection of the solid waste in some parts of the metropolis. In few areas where large waste bins are provided, they are hardly used by the community. The major environmental issues resulting from improper disposal and poor management of solid waste in Kano metropolis are physical nuisance of the waste to the environment, the solid waste are blown around by winds or rainstorm making the environment dirty, the waste sometimes block drainage channels during rainstorm causing flooding in the metropolis. The heaps of the solid waste serve as good hideouts for reptiles, rodents, and other dangerous insects. The solid waste may decompose to emit methane gas which contributes to climate change. Most of the non-decomposable solid wastes contain harmful chemical elements which have severe health implications. Generally, the study shows that soil, air and water pollution in the study area are caused by both pathogenic and chemical elements from these heaps of solid waste that dot some of the major streets and open spaces. Therefore, the paper recommends that a strong legislation with severe sanction be put in place and they should be a continuous public enlightenment on the danger of municipal waste to the general public. It is also recommended that available market be created for these waste that can be recycled.

Keywords: Biodegradable, Chemical Elements, Electronic Wastes, Environment, Harmful, Management, Metropolis, Non–biodegradable, Refuse Dumps, Solid Wastes