Fossil fuels are compounds of hydrocarbons comprising of coal, natural gas and oil. Over the years, their constant use as sources of energy have adversely impacted the environment and have greatly contributed to global warming which have led to the advocacy for renewable energy. Renewable energy is produced from sources that do not deplete or can be replenished within a human life time. Bio-energy is the energy derived from biological sources and types of bio-energy are bio-ethanol, biogas, and biodiesel. This research work is to produce bio-ethanol from watermelon exocarp. A total of 78.6 kg of watermelon waste was collected from tenboga market upper mission road, Benin City, Edo State. The water melon exocarp was processed and fed into the grinding machine for blending. A cloth sieve filter was used to obtain 60 litres of juice from the slurry. The juice was fed into the fermentation pot, which fermented for five days. Brewer’s yeast (Saccharosomysis Cerevisae) and amylase of 11g each were added to the feedstock to facilitate the fermentation process. pH, conductivity, sugar content, refractive index and alcoholic content were observed daily and recorded during the period of fermentation. The beer was distilled at ethanol boiling point of 790C utilizing an indigenous bio-ethanol plant. It was recorded that 15 litres of ethanol with 35% alcoholic content was obtained from 60 litres of beer at the end of the distillation process. This therefore suggests that water melon waste can be harnessed as a viable feedstock for ethanol production.
Citation: Biose, O., Imhontu, M., Akenzua, O., Ehigiamusoe, O., Atsegha, B.,Onabe, J., Angalapu Daudeigha, J., Okorie, C., Igbinomwanhia, D. Iyeke (2021) Determining the Viability of Watermelon Exocarp as a Feedstock for Ethanol Production, International Journal of Physical Sciences Research, Vol.5, No.1, pp.21-27
Bioethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: Technical Overview, Progress and Challenges (Published)
Due to the rapid growth in population and industrialization coupled with the adverse side effects from usage of fossil fuels, there is a high demand for renewable fuel especially ethanol which is environmentally friendly and can be used as substitute for premium motor spirit. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of food and feed. Therefore sugar, starch and lignocellulosic materials from municipal solid waste stream are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production. Agricultural wastes from municipal solid waste stream are cost effective, sustainable, addresses environmental pollution and create wealth and energy. Bioethanol production from wastes could be promising, however, the processes has several challenges and limitations such as feedstock sourcing and finance. This paper gives an overview, the technicality, challenges and the progress for bioethanol production from municipal solid waste.
Citation: Biose Osadebe, Maureen Imhontu, Oghosa Akenzua, Christopher Okorie, James Onabe, Bildad Atsegha, Jonah D. Angalapu, Bawo Kubeyinje, Rita Orerome, Wale Akingba,2Igbinoimwahia D. Iyeke (2021) Bioethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: Technical Overview, Progress and Challenges, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp., 1-9
Mapping Forest Loss and Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration Rate Between 2000 – 2015 using Remote Sensing in Akpaka Forest Reserve, Onitsha North L.G.A Of Anambra State (Published)
This study investigated the extent of forest resource loss in Akpaka Forest Reserve through mapping forest loss and rate of carbon-dioxide sequestration from year 2000-2015 using remote sensing. To map forest loss in the study area between year 2000 – 2015, four Land-sat images (Land-sat 8 thematic mapper; Land-sat 7 enhanced thematic; Land-sat 8 operational and Imagery covering four epochs years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 respectively) were downloaded from www.earthexplorer.usgs.gov. Image pre-processing was done to correct for atmospheric errors and scan line errors, after which an image subset was done to cut out the extent of open forest, water body and built up areas from the images. Normalized differential vegetation index was calculated from the red and near infra-red bands of the Land-sat images and used to determine carbon-dioxide sequestration in open forest in the study area. Results showed that in year 2000 open forest; water body and built up area covered 49.19%, 13.04% and 37.77% of the study area respectively. In year 2005, open forest water body and built up area covered 45.78%, 13.31% and 40.50% respectively. In year 2010 open forest was 43.81%, water body was 13.39%, and built up area was 42.80%. In year 2015 open forest decreased further to 41.97%, water body was 13.43% and built up area increased to 44.60%. This implies that there was a continuous loss of forest resources in the reserve while built up area increased steadily. Rate of carbondioxide sequestration indicated that for open forest 11.13kg/ha of carbon dioxide sequestrated between 2000 and 2005; 10.66kg/ha between 2005 and 2010 and 10.54kg/ha between 2010 and 2015. This implies that rate of carbon dioxide sequestration for the period under study is on steady decline due to forest loss and upsurge of built up area in Akpaka Forest Reserve. The study recommended Protection, Production and Legal Initiatives as means of preventing and repairing forest loss in the study area among other suggestions.
Cultural and Environmental factors influence on tourists’ choice of destination in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The study, cultural and environmental factors influence on tourists’ choice of destination in Delta State, Nigeria, was conducted in Gordon Hotel Resort, Abraka and the source of River Ethiope, Umuaja in Delta State. The study investigated factors that influenced tourist to visit the above destinations. Factors investigated were, cultural and environmental factors. The research design was a survey method using simple random sampling for data collection (n=180). Data collected were analyzed into percentage, frequencies means and Z-test was applied for the test of hypotheses. Uppermost findings revealed were that respondents’ males (78%), educated elites (59%) and adults (45 years) were more involved it tourism. Tourists were more attracted to the fauna ecosystem (mean = 2.91) of the environment than other endowments in THE study area. The most prominent cultural attraction was the cultural museum/monuments (mean = 2.96). The study implied that tourism destination with natural environment encourages agricultural investment. The study concluded that environmental and cultural endowments contributed to tourists’ choice of destination in Nigeria. It was recommended that more women and youth involvement in tourism so to increase income generation.
Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Quality of Sudan Savanna Alfisols in Semi-arid Tropical Zone of Nigeria (Published)
With increase in industrialization, threat of industrial pollution has been troubling the human world for many years causing environmental pollution including agricultural soils, which are adversely affected when untreated or partially treated industrial effluents are applied on them as irrigation amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the quality of soils irrigated with the effluents in Sharada industrial area by measuring different physico-chemical quality parameters. The soil samples were collected from three different phases of the industrial area and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Findings indicated that application of industrial effluents on soil caused changes in the physico-chemical profile of the soil with parameters like pH, organic carbon (OC) , nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), exchangeable sodium (Na) and potassium (K) recording mean values ranging from 6.6-7.2, 1.0-2.2%, 0.1-0.2%, 9.0- 14.0mg/Kg, 0.1-0.5Cmol/Kg and 0.6-0.7Cmol/Kg respectively. These values were different from the normal range of fertile and qualitative soil according to standards, and no significant differences were recorded among the sampling sites (P>0.05). Furthermore, the study revealed that the soil texture was sandy loam and loamy sand, while the cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) recorded mean values in the range of 4.6-6.8Cmol/Kg, 0.3-1.0dS/m, 1.6-3.7Cmol/Kg and 1.0-2.0Cmol/Kg in that order with significant variation among the sampling sites (P<0.05) indicating the moderate impact of industrial effluents on the soil quality. Overall, the research findings indicated that Sharada industrial effluents have impacted relatively on the soil quality of the surrounding soils in the area and their application should be discontinued for irrigation unless with careful monitoring and guarded improvement in the quality of the industrial wastewater as well as application of inorganic and organic amendments that will improve the fertility and quality of the soils of the study area.
Education is the pivot of development. It has an over-riding force on the nature of the environment and economy that prevail in any given state. To that extent, education becomes the lubricant that shapes the behaviour, attitudes, abilities, perception and choices which set the overall tone of the economy. Education, therefore, as a factor of environmental and economic choices which make all the difference between developed, developing and underdeveloped societies, is the subject of critique in this paper.
Ecofeminist Colourings in the Works of Chinua Achebe and Thomas Hardy (Published)
The current global environmental crises urged me to investigate the manner in which writers from different backgrounds represent man’s relationship with nature in their texts and how they tie it to feminist dynamics. More precisely, the work focuses on the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe’s trilogy Things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease and Arrow of God and the English writer Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure. The research question that guides the work is: how do Chinua Achebe and Thomas Hardy represent the connection between environmental issues and gender considerations? The hypothesis is based on the premise that the two authors represent the environment and feminine realities with hints to the need for more protection. Second Wave Ecocriticism as outlined by Lawrence Buell and Ecofeminism according to Paul Sanders Quick constitute the theoretical framework while the Comparative Approach of Tötösy de Zepetnek that stresses on an international dimension is the methodology used to bring out the ecofeminist visions of the two writers in the above-mentioned texts.
Romantic Ecologism: Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the False Eco-criticism Tributes (Published)
Colonial and postcolonial environmental criticisms of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (TFA) have attributed to the novel eco-critical consciousness of significance, apparently ignoring the concern for environmental sustainability that is the foundation of current arts and humanities endeavour into the environmental discourses. On the strength of representations of human and non-human nature in the novel, critics have adjudged the novel to be a quintessence of the ecocritical ideal. Against some of the conceptual underpinnings of foremost ecocriticism postulations, ecological consciousness attributed to TFA are contested in this present study as false and misleading. The utilitarian values of ecocriticism and the remediating goal of literature in environmental studies, which are absent in the primary text and many of its secondary readings, are recommended as the basis for attributing ecocritical consciousness to texts. Natural entities and practices in the novel are contested as contextualization devices, employed by the author, for situating characters and events in their organic, pre-colonial African setting, and are described in this paper as the lost ecological values of Africa that are decried by contemporary critics of the global impacts of the science and technological cultures on the environment. This study employs ecocriticism as its theoretical basis.
Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria As Impacted by the Primary Air Pollutants in the Area (Published)
Air pollution activities have increased over the years in urban areas of most developing countries like Nigeria. The same has been experienced in Enugu metropolis. This study therefore examined how environmental quality of Enugu metropolis has been impacted by the polluted air in the environment. The metropolis was classified into different neigbourhoods and then stratified into low, medium and high density areas. Samples were randomly collected from these neighborhoods. In determining the residential environmental quality of the area factor analysis (principal component analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor known as “Y” variable. This served as dependent variable. Primary air pollutants; particular matter, Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide constituted the independent variables as x1, x2, x3 and x4 respectively. Using multiple regression model a relationship between the dependent and independent variable was established. The coefficient of determination in the result showed that adjusted r2=.917, indicating that 91.7% variation in the residential environmental quality could be predicted from air pollution. Health challenges of reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood, chronic bronchitis and worsening respiratory illnesses were identified as some of the effects. Also identified, are acidification of soils, staining of fabrics among others on the environment. Making petroleum products like kerosene available and affordable to all by the federal government of Nigeria, among others have been recommended.
Environmental Management and Recreational Facilities Usage: A Study of Kainji Lake National Park (Published)
Assessment of Environmental and Recreation Facility Maintenance was carried out in Kainji Lake National Park. Questionnaire method of data collection was employed to collect the data needed. Purposive and simple random techniques were adopted to sample respondents in the study area. One hundred questionnaires were designed and administered. The data collected were analyzed through simple percentage and presented in table and charts. However, the results showed that recreation facilities are 99% present, while swimming pool is 65% functional. The study showed that visitors came there three times in a week indicating 44% of the respondents while on maintenance of the park environment and the facilities indicated 94% and 88% of the respondents respectively. The study further recommended the followings facilities basketball pitch. Hockey game, volley ball and well-constructed swimming pool.
Effect of Cassava Mill Effluent on Microbial Properties of Garden Soil: Eziobodo Imo State Nigeria (Published)
An assessment of the Effect of Cassava Effluent on Garden Soil was made. Two soil samples were collected; one from a farmland polluted with cassava effluent and, another as an unpolluted sample – free from cassava effluent pollution. The microbial analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the cassava effluent on the soil microbial qualities of garden soil. Results showed that unpolluted soil sample was normal, while the results of the polluted soil sample showed extinct or absence of normal garden soil microbial fauna with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus which are more harmful than good wherever they are found. However, the presumptive identification of fungi in the polluted soil sample showed presence of Candida sp. The results of the bacteriological count showed absence of coliform bacteria, and the Triple sugar iron and various biochemical reactions showed the absence of bacteria such as Bacillus sp which possess nitrogenise and is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Such genus of bacteria could stimulate plant growth by colonizing plant tissues – external or internal and providing fixed nitrogen to the host plant. Also various species of Bacillus have the ability to increase plant nutrients in soil. Bacillus forms positive interactions (symbiotic) involving bacteria and fungi to stimulate growth in plants. Many strains are capable of inhibiting pathogenic growth or activity directly and indirectly in soil.Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with regulatory Standard, appropriate method(s) of environmental friendly disposal of both solid and cassava wastewater are recommended for safe and healthy environment.
Effect of Cassava Mill Effluent on Microbial Properties of Garden Soil – Eziobodo Imo State Nigeria (Published)
An assessment of the Effect of Cassava Effluent on Garden Soil was made. Two soil samples were collected; one from a farmland polluted with cassava effluent and, another as an unpolluted sample – free from cassava effluent pollution. The microbial analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the cassava effluent on the soil microbial qualities of garden soil. Results showed that unpolluted soil sample was normal, while the results of the polluted soil sample showed extinct or absence of normal garden soil microbial fauna with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus which are more harmful than good wherever they are found. However, the presumptive identification of fungi in the polluted soil sample showed presence of Candida sp. The results of the bacteriological count showed absence of coliform bacteria, and the Triple sugar iron and various biochemical reactions showed the absence of bacteria such as Bacillus sp which possess nitrogenise and is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Such genus of bacteria could stimulate plant growth by colonizing plant tissues – external or internal and providing fixed nitrogen to the host plant. Also various species of Bacillus have the ability to increase plant nutrients in soil. Bacillus forms positive interactions (symbiotic) involving bacteria and fungi to stimulate growth in plants. Many strains are capable of inhibiting pathogenic growth or activity directly and indirectly in soil. Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with regulatory Standard, appropriate method(s) of environmental friendly disposal of both solid and cassava wastewater are recommended for safe and healthy environment.
Investigating the Effects of Urbanization on Environmental Degradation in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the effect of urbanization on environmental degradation in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa State. The concentric zone model provided the theoretical framework for this study. The correlational study design served as the study design, while probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used for the sampling procedures. Using Taro Yamane formula, the study sampled a total of 339 respondents. Data for the study was gathered through structured questionnaires. Data collected for the study was subjected to statistical analysis using percentages, frequency distributions table, pie chart, mean, binary logistics regression and Pearson correlation with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. Based on analysis, the study concluded that rapid urbanization led to housing problem, flooding and poor sanitary conditions. Based on the findings, the study recommended quality housing structure, environmental sanitation and effective urban planning by Yenagoa Capital City Development Authority to prevent degradation of the environment.
With the world’s largest population and increased rate of growth, China’s economy is faced with a big concern of moving towards more sustainable development initiatives. This paper aimed to evaluate the emerging issues of green logistics in Chinese manufacturing firms. This research used content analysis to review literature from recent journals, magazines and newspapers to draw out secondary data that helped to analyse the drivers of green logistics practices and the challenges faced by Chinese manufacturing firms in implementing them. Material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection and material evaluation steps were used when conducting the analysis. The emerging issues of green logistics in Chinese manufacturing firms were found to be driven by regulatory measures, pressures arising from customers and competitors, and social cultural responsibility. Key barriers to green logistics implementation by these firms were associated with technical factors, organization factors, and financial and human resource constraints. A great deal of potential for green logistics studies is present in China and a proper research funding and infrastructure will aid in the sustainability agenda of this economy. For the Chinese manufacturing companies to cope up with the environmental crises, they need to consider environmental protection issues and integrate these with their operational decisions to create sustainability in their organizations. More co-operations in these firms is also needed with better top managerial support to govern employee’s green behaviour and avail technical resources and learning capabilities within the industry. Although few researchers have studied Green Supply Chain Management in China, this paper is unique in that it evaluates emerging issues of Green Logistics in Chinese Manufacturing firms using a literature review approach.
Facility Location and Its Impact on the Environment: Using a Centralized and Decentralized Approach, a Case Study (Published)
There has been an increase in consumption of goods in the last century due to the rapid economic growth all over the world. Globalization has availed large streams of goods to meet this demand but the production, transportation, storage and consumption of these goods have caused environmental problems to emerge. Manufacturing companies are facing numerous pressures from the government and consumers to produce environmentally sustainable goods. The decision to set-up a plant is a strategic issue as the best facility location does not only ensure that the costs are minimized but also take care of the impacts on the environment. This paper presents a case of ABC Chinese steel manufacturing company operating in a centralized facility location approach and intends to evaluate the impact of a decentralized approach on the environment. A simulation of the two networks is run and the results reveal that the centralized approach is more suitable for this company as it is not only economical to them but it is also environmentally sustainable due to the lower carbon emissions produced by this model. The research concludes that facility location decisions greatly impacts the environment but the approach to adopt depends on the type of the product, mode of transportation and the choices of fuel.
All human beings in Nigeria depend on the environment and therefore must have a role to play in sustaining the environment since all of us take part in the degradation of our environment. Therefore providing relevant information on the complex nature of the environment and its associated problems through environmental adult education strategies will help in addressing the numerous environmental issues facing Nigeria. This paper, therefore, is an attempt to highlight some of the strategies of environmental adult education for the promotion of environmental sustainability. These strategies may include; communal areas management programme for indigenous resources, community participation, community environmental education, community tree planting and public enlightenment strategy. Sensitizing the general public on the nature of the environment and its complexity through the various strategies of environmental adult education will help them develop positive attitude to protect and sustain the environment. It therefore becomes pertinent that individuals, governments, practitioners and non-governmental agencies should lay much emphasizes on the promotion of environmental adult education strategies for environmental sustainability.
Demographic characteristics and economic development are the major determinants of urban shape and pattern of urbanization in Gombe which gave rise to rapid population growth. These determinants resulted to unplanned urban growth, unprecedented urbanization and land use change as a result contributing in the rapid reduction of vegetation cover and loss of arable land in the surrounding urban environment. The aim of this paper is on the impact of urbanization on vegetation cover. Both primary and secondary data was employed in this work. Socio-economic data and information on the status of tree species were gathered through questionnaire survey that involved 195 respondents using purposive sampling techniques in the study area. While the land use land cover analysis was carried out using ArcGis 10.5 and Edras Imagine 9.0. The finding was made to capture as accurate as possible six land use land cover classes as they changed through time. The result of the work shows a rapid decrease on the vegetation and a gradual increase in settlements between 1976 and 2016 due to the fact that Gombe metropolis became the capital of Gombe state in 1996. Also only few tree species were found within the study area, as most trees are cut down for various developmental purposes. The study recommends that urgent attention on conservation of vegetal resources within the metropolis should be encouraged.
This research study investigated the effect of work environment on employee productivity using Edo City Transport Service whether inadequacy of the various conditional factors can affect productivity of employee. The objective of this study therefore geared towards ascertaining whether the nature of work environment lead to low productivity, absenteeism and lateness among employees. With the objective of the study in mind, this research project work focused on examining the effect of work environment. To achieve the study objectives and for the purpose of this seminar paper, secondary data were collected and analyzed as well. From the research findings, if good office environment is provided for employees, it will go a long way to enhance their morale and performance. Also, if office is neat, noiseless, properly arranged well lighted and ventilated, employees will feel a sense of belonging and this will make them to work efficiently and effectively. Good physical working environment inspires workers to spend more time in their various offices, employees responded emotionally better towards the provision of good office environment by not absenting themselves unnecessarily from work, lateness to work and other negative attitude will be drastically reduced. Good working environment increase individual output therefore leading to growth of the organization. Based on the research study findings, the researcher recommended the followings: The organization should map out programme for provision of good work environment to increase productivity and of promoting occupational safety and health of workers. The organization should ensure that the office of its workers is always clean, tiding up and properly arranged for easy movement and comfortable to the workers and customers.
Human activities represented in industrial and technological revolution led to the increase of emissions of warming gases and their concentrations in the atmosphere. This increase caused the phenomenon of greenhouse gases and the rise of earth temperature over its natural rates as a result of the increase of absorption rate of infra-red rays, which led to the climate change of the earth. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (PFcs ,HFcs, and SF6. Many studies dealt with natural and reviving environment and its relation with climate change. These studies have increased much in the last 5 years and they led to more confidence in the relation between warning phenomenon and its impact on the national economies. They confirmed that there is a high degree of certainty for the present regional changes in temperatures. The impact of these changes was quite clear on many physical reviving systems because of warming phenomenon. This research dealt with studying the different impact of climate on sustainable development in the Arab world. It set up a policy for adaptation to or mitigation of climate changes to achieve sustainability in development, through which we can preserve the environment and achieve development. The research is based on the realistic and Descriptive analysis to identify the nature of the relation between climate change and sustainable development in the Arab world. Besides, the research used the adjusted net saving rates which reflect the variability of sustainable development used by the World Bank to show environment deterioration and depletion in addition to the use of sustainability of development in the Arab world. we could find out that some countries achieved recent positive values and others achieved recent negative values. This shows that climate changes have negative impact on sustainable development operation in the Arab countries.
The interactions between man and environment determine both the quality of environment and as well as the quality of life that man lives. The feedback mechanisms of the interactions between man and environment are directly proportional. The increase in the number of urban dwellers is no more novel as over 50% of the world population resides in urban centers. This continuous and accidental increase in the number of urban dwellers with respect to their actions in the environment has played significant roles in the depletion of the quality of the environment. Since human health or wellbeing depends on the quality of his immediate environment, the focus on environmental quality emerged as a key area for research in urban and regional planning. This paper appraises the quality of the built environment in a steadily urbanizing traditional settlement in Ogbomoso North Local Government, Nigeria using selected environmental quality indicators while necessary recommendations are put forward to rejuvenate sickening built environment.