The Regent Business Schools New Entrepreneurial Centre: Towards Transforming South Africa’s Past and Reformulating the Present (Published)
The paper looks at entrepreneurship in terms of its importance to South Africa. In this regard it discusses the importance of initiatives like the Regent Business Schools proposed new Entrepreneurial Centre which will be opened in the latter part of 2016. A brief historical perspective is undertaken in this regard, in order to firstly situate the thrust, importance and necessity of the entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial dynamic, as it relates to a democratic South Africa. This is undertaken within the context of development and leadership in South Africa. The importance of entrepreneurship cannot be under estimated, in terms of development and economic growth in South Africa for purposes of stimulating much needed small business development and, the empowerment of the masses of people neglected by the administrative government systems by both, the apartheid and democratic government, post 1994. In undertaking the discussion in this paper, the issues towards transforming South Africa’s past and transforming the present assumes significance, in terms of the transformation agenda of the state. In addition the paper very briefly discusses development theories, and calls for a reformulation of these theories in order, to engineer sustained and coordinated development within developing countries. The paper outlines the strategic plan for the Regent Business Schools Centre for Entrepreneurship and its modalities for engagement for purposes of consolidating this important and necessary initiative. By the same token, the paper discusses very briefly the problems that higher education confronts in respect to access into higher education in South Africa and, therefore, posits that entrepreneurial training and development can assist in solving some problems that the country confronts, in terms of access to higher education and entrepreneurial development.
Enabling and Stimulating Entrepreneurship Education in Higheer Education Institutions: Catalyst for Venturesome Youths and Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)
Entrepreneurship is increasingly being recognized as a significant conduct for bringing about a transformation to sustainable products and processes, with numerous high-profile thinkers advocating entrepreneurship as a panacea for many social and environmental concerns. Yet, despite the promise entrepreneurship holds for fostering sustainable development, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the nature of entrepreneurship’s role in the area, and the academic discourse on sustainable development within the mainstream entrepreneurship literature has to date been sparse. While entrepreneurs have long been recognized as a vehicle for exploiting emerging opportunities associated with societal need, we have little understanding of how entrepreneurs will discover and develop those opportunities that lie beyond the pull of existing markets. Thus, while the case for entrepreneurship as a panacea for transitioning towards sustainable development society-wide is valid, there exists major gaps in our knowledge of whether and how this process will actually unfold. This paper focuses on: (i) Factors that challenge the teaching of entrepreneurship education within the Higher Education Institutions to engender sustainable development and venturesome youths; (ii) Strategies to employ in addressing these challenges. Factors that Challenge the Teaching of Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education Institutions; (iii) Imperatives and outcomes of entrepreneurship education and the state of entrepreneurship education in Higher Education Institutions
Skills in Basic Science and Technology for Local Technology and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria (Published)
With the broad search for skills to drive the home grown local technology in developing countries like Nigeria, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) in the new Curriculum for Basic Science and Technology, encourages teachers to lead their students to identify entrepreneurial skills in Basic Sciences. This study is one of the efforts to determine such skills in Basic Sciences and Technology for Local technology and entrepreneurship. The research took place in one of the biggest cities in a flourishing State in Nigeria with 120 students (30 each), randomly selected from four secondary schools. The validated prime instrument for the descriptive survey design was questionnaire. The data was analyzed using inferential statistics. The researcher made recommendations that could answer the usual local and global question of “Where next is technology driving the local entrepreneurial?”
The Relationship between Entrepreneurship Education and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions in Ogun State-Owned Universities, Nigeria (Published)
The alarming rate of unemployment in Nigeria has become a major national problem. To abate this problem, the Federal Ministry of Education made Entrepreneurship Education compulsory for all students of higher institutions in the country. This study therefore investigates the relationship between students’ exposure to Entrepreneurship Education and their career entrepreneurial intentions in Ogun State-owned universities. Six hypotheses were generated for the study. The population comprises all final year undergraduates, with a sample of six hundred and nine. Three research instruments were used. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, T-test and ANOVA. Findings revealed that Entrepreneurship Education significantly influences students’ Entrepreneurial intentions. It was recommended among others that Entrepreneurship Education should be practical-oriented so as to have greater participations in classroom interactions which would further enhance motivation.
The Effect of Women-Owned Business on Entrepreurship and Small Business Management: The Case of ‘Happy Family’ (Published)
The paper examines the issue of entrepreneurship and small business focusing on women-owned businesses. It explores the relevant academic literature, addresses succinct research questions which will be answered after having examined one of the top US women-owned companies, Happy Family. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate how Happy Family may serve as a model for successful women entrepreneurship. Through the information derived from this research specific questions that arose from the literature review are answered. Findings indicate that indeed Happy Family, as a women-owned small business, has some basic unique features, such as decent background, limited access to capital and family related incentives. On the other hand, high level of education and entrepreneurial character skills are met in women who start a small company and lead it to full success. Some current challenges can be summarized into increasing competition as long as a company grows and continuous pursuit of initial mission.
Assessing the Impact of Incubation Programme to Small and Medium Enterprises Development in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (Published)
This paper sought to determine the impact of incubation programme to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) development in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The study utilised a quantitative method approach to collect data by way of closed and open handed questionnaires. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was utilised to analyse the data. The findings indicated that incubated SMEs had about; one to ten employees (85.7%) in the programme during the course of investigation. While those who had about eleven to fifty employees represented (14.3%) as this indicates slight improvement for economic participation and job creation in the Cape Metropolitan District. A majority of the respondents (53.6%) who participated in the study strongly agreed that businesses in the incubation program has a great potential to create more jobs opportunities. In addition, the results also indicate that respondents (60.7%) joined the incubation programme to obtain a multiple of skills such as networking, finance and growth. Recommendations to improve the current standard of incubated entrepreneurs in the study setting were made
The Nigeria government introduced entrepreneurship education as a pathway to stimulate self- sufficiency, self-sustainability and self-support culture in students. The aim is to ensure graduates take advantages of personal resourcefulness to be self-employed. This is because entrepreneurship concerns the persistent pursuit of opportunities to create wealth through innovative creation of a product or service that meets customer’s needs using scare resources in a way that results in a growth enterprise which satisfies the expectation of stakeholders whose roles sustain the business. Against this backdrop, therefore, the paper examines the concepts of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education and self-reliance. The paper equally examines the role of entrepreneurship education in self-reliance and economic development and highlighted the challenges for entrepreneurship education in Nigeria such as inadequate funding, lack of materials, entrepreneurship teachers among others. Finally, it recommends that the government should strive to release up to 26% of their annual budget for education as suggested by UNESCO.
Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of Handicraft Industry: A Study of Nepalese Handicraft Enterprises (Published)
This paper represents the role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in business performance of handicraft enterprises in Nepal. The study is conducted among the members of Federation of Handicraft Associations of Nepal. Guided by the post-positivistic paradigm, this study examines the effect of five EO dimensions on handicraft business performance. Simple random sample is employed among 397 population and 196 respondents are asked to respond to the survey questionnaire. Out of 178 responded people, only 161 were found usable. The business performance is measured through the three dimensions, namely efficiency, growth, and profit. The descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis are used to analyze the data and to infer results. However, business status, respondents’ qualification, national coverage, employment generation, and gender equality seemed good but fertile areas of business were found only in tourist areas of Nepal. The findings of correlation and regression represent that autonomy, risk-taking, and pro-activeness and competitive aggressiveness were positively correlated with business performance. However, innovativeness had no correlation with business performance of handicraft enterprises in Nepal. Further, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation were found only the contributors in handicraft business. The empirical findings of this study recommended that the companies should pay proper attention to expand their business in other States of Nepal as well because Nepal has also other potential areas of tourism. The study also found that the handicraft business is well operated in State 3 and 4 where Kathmandu and Pokhara are situated though they are prominent areas of tourism in Nepal.
Social Innovation Strategies and the Performance of Social Enterprises in Nairobi City County, Kenya (Published)
Current trends have shown that social entrepreneurship is identified as the Key driver of the third sector as well as the public and private sector. Social enterprises play a critical role in social-economic development. Social innovation is one of the most important aspects of social entrepreneurship as it enhances the degree to which an enterprise effectively responds to emerging opportunities and challenges in the market. The field of social innovation turns critical societal problems into opportunities by actively involving the community actors. This paper is an analysis of how social innovations influence social enterprises in Nairobi County of Kenya. Cross -sectional design is used. The target population comprises all the registered social enterprises in Nairobi County. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 107 registered social enterprises in the County. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the main data collection instruments. A pilot study was conducted to test validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Data was then analyzed both descriptively and using inferential statistics. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the hypotheses. Both Pearson’s product moment correlation and Chi-square were also used to test for significant associations between social innovations and performance of Social enterprises.
Education in Cameroon has come under serious criticisms for failing to deliver in accordance with its promises as stipulated in the education law. With the improving situation of democracy and freedom in Cameroon entrepreneurship becomes a major prerequisite for the rapid economic development of the nation. It is for this reason that these researchers elected to carry out a study on curriculum structure and the Cameroonian labour and industrial market. The curriculum of the English speaking educational subsystem was evaluated. The study revealed that the present curriculum no longer meets the demands of the society. A curriculum revision was recommended
The Role of University Managerial Staff In The Process Of Implementing the Concept of Entrepreneurship and Innovation by Jordanian Universities (Published)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the dimensions of the university managerial staff role in the process of implementing the concept of entrepreneurship and innovation by Jordanian universities. A questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection where 320 questionnaires were distributed to a random sample from seven Jordanian universities managerial staff. The collected data were refined and statistically analyzed. The obtained results clearly denote that the three independent variables (university managerial staff capacities, the university supporting policy and the nature of the general environment) all together have positive impacts on both dependent variables (the university general performance and the expansion of education and professional opportunity for university entrepreneurship graduates, with a correlation coefficient values of 0.908 and 0.890 respectively at 0.01 level of significant.
Inequality, Poverty among Nigeria Women and Youth and the Challenges of Inclusive Growth in Post 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (Published)
By all standards, economic growth is expected to reduce poverty, rather poverty in Nigeria has remained high as 112m people representing 67 percent of the population are in abject poverty while GDP rates fell to 7.68 per cent in 2011 from 8.60 in 2010. Income inequality was 0.3594(2010) and -25.9 in 2011(BOS,2012). If Millennium Development Goals (MDG) could affect poverty level in India and China, why has Nigeria’s poverty level remained high? The study hence, examined the challenges of inequality and poverty reduction among Nigerian women and youth with focus on inclusive growth in post 2015 MDG. Content analysis of secondary literature was undertaken to address the problem of the study. Findings indicated that poverty in Nigeria is not affected due to misdirection of programmes from rural to urban areas, inadequate funding, lack of control, transparency and accountability and inadequate coverage of the poor. The study suggested that entrepreneurial training programmes and capability creation, combined with an all inclusive effort aimed at providing education and health facility, integrated growth, income distribution, and financing land ownership are highly required. Conclusively, poverty in Nigeria can be substantively reduced if an all inclusive approach is adopted covering entrepreneurial training backed with monitoring and accommodation of large coverage of the poor in the programme in post 2015 MDG plans.
Attitudes of Undergraduate Students towards Self-Employment in Ethiopian Public Universities (Published)
With the rapid population growth and expansion of higher learning institutions unemployment of university graduates is a major socio- economic problem in Ethiopia. The main purpose of this paper is therefore, to investigate the attitude of Ethiopia public university undergraduate graduating class students towards self-employment. The population was composed of graduating class students of one government universities in Ethiopia. The data was collected through questionnaire from randomly selected 80 students of Assosa University. The data obtained through questionnaire was statistically analyzed through statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. The research result reveals that significant number of graduating class students’ job preference right after graduation was government or private employment and majority of students do not have short- term self-employment plan in the foreseeable future after graduation. Therefore, it’s advised that universities entrepreneurship course should focus practically on development of competencies related to entrepreneurship and cultural awareness.
Entrepreneurship is an area that has attracted the interest of various researchers, academics, government as well as private individuals. To this end, researchers in this field have adopted multidisciplinary approach in the study of entrepreneurship. One of the disciplines that has shown a heightened interest in the study of entrepreneurship is sociology. Thus, this work adopts a sociological approach in investigating the contributions and challenges of entrepreneurship to the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
Business Education Students’s Perception Of The Skill Needs For Successful Entrepreneurship In Nigeria (Published)
The paper examined the Business education students’ perception of skill needs for successful entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population consisted of 6002 business education students. 600 respondents were selected through stratified sampling technique. The study adopted survey design. A four point response item structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Out of the 600 copies distributed, 589 were collected and used for the study. The instrument was face- validated by three experts in the Departments of Business Education and science education of Ebonyi State University. An internal consistency of 0.98 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha correlation coefficient. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t –test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that business education students need technical and financial management skills to function well in this time of economic meltdown in Nigeria. It was concluded that there was need to put in place learning facilities that will help the business education students to acquire the skills. It was recommended that the institutions training Business Education students for entrepreneurship should have well equipped entrepreneurial development centre.
Skills Training Needed by Business Education Students for Successful Entrepreneurship: Implications for Colleges of Education in Nigeria. (Published)
Scholars have identified entrepreneurship education as the missing link between poverty and national development. Consequently, developing a functional Entrepreneurship curriculum for tertiary institutions is needed. This paper dealt with the various skills needed by business education students for successful entrepreneurship. Three research questions and three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The Population of the study consisted of 6002 students of Business Education , 600 of the total population were used for study. The study made use of survey design. A structured questionnaire designed on 4 point rating scale containing 44 items on skills training needed for successful entrepreneurship grouped into three clusters was used for gathering data for the study. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the three null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that information and communication technology (ICT) skill, Risk management skill training and innovative skill training are needed for successful entrepreneurship. It was recommended that the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) should from time to time review the course content /syllabus, adequate funds and special grants be provided by government to colleges of education especially in south-west states to enable them procure and maintain needed teaching and learning materials.
THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING, EDUCATION, AND SELF-EFFICACY ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: A CASE STUDY ON SMALL-SCALED EMBROIDERY INDUSTRIES IN PROBOLINGGO (Published)
There are a few researches linking to social networking, education, self-efficacy, entrepreneurship and subjective well-being (SWB). Previous researches related to economic relations and SWB, especially to compare the SWB between countries. Different from the theese, this research is more comprehensive in discussing entrepreneurship. This research was intended to analyze the effects of social networking, education, and self-efficacy on entrepreneurship and subjective well-being of small-scaled embroidery industries in Probolinggo. The samples of this research consisted of 130 out of 150 embroidery entrepreneurs in Probolinggo. As means of data collection, the researchers applied survey method by asking questionnaire to the respondents (entrepreneurs at Probolinggo embroidery industries center). The questionnaire used in this research had been passed validity and reliability test to assure the questionnaire was valid and reliable. Meanwhile, data analysis process was conducted based on Partial Least Square (PLS) technique. The findings of this research indicated that: 1) embroidery entrepreneurs’ social networking significantly affected their entrepreneurship; 2) their education did not significantly affect their entrepreneurship; 3) their self-efficacy significantly affected their entrepreneurship; 4) social networking significantly affected their subjective well-being; 5) their education did not significantly affect their subjective well-being; 6) self-efficacy significantly affected their subjective well-being; 7) entrepreneurship of the entrepreneurs at Probolinggo embroidery industries center significantly affected their subjective well-being.
Analysis of Students’ Attitudes toward Self-Employment Intention in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria (Published)
The paper analyzes students’ attitudes toward self-employment intention. Students have different traits which perhaps are responsible for shaping their attitudes. The decision to become self-employed is dependent on so many factors. People become self-employed either because they want to explore an existing opportunity or because there is limited paid employment opportunities. High unemployment rate among graduate is one of the major problems facing government of Nigeria at present. The recent effort by the governments at different levels to encourage youth to become self-employed is an indication of the resolve to redirect students’ attitudes toward self-self-employment in the country. At this stage, it is important to ascertain what influence the attitude of students and how they vary in their intention toward self-employment. Survey design was conducted to collect data from final year student of Higher National Diploma (HND) across four schools of Kano State Polytechnic. Correlation analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the relationship among the selected variables and to know the difference among the students on their self-employment intentions. It was found that the relationship between self-employment intentions with the students’ self-efficacy, innovativeness and risk taking propensity are positive, whereas self-employment intention negatively relates with the students’ locus of control. The study also reveals that there is no significant difference among students on their self-employment intentions.
THE EFFECT OF SEX (GENDER) ON THE SUCCESS OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN MARKETING IN JORDAN (AN EMPIRICAL STUDY) (Published)
The aim of this study is to address gender barriers in the business environment in Jordan. Two variables that may influence economic success of businesses owned by women entrepreneurs in Jordan were selected for this purpose. These variables are the marital status of female entrepreneur and its effect on her business, while the second variable is related to gender discrimination and whether it is considered a major obstacle facing women entrepreneurs. To analyze data collected from 102 convenient sample of female business owners in private sector and different innovation centers the linear model was used to identify the relationship between the marital status and gender discrimination and success in business. The result of this study shows a positive relationship between the marital status of business owners and success in business and that being a female or single is not an obstacle facing Jordanian women in business. The implications of the results are briefly highlighted.
The aim of vocational education is oriented toward sustainable performance that can contribute to the country development. A mission is of great importance to the organizations as well as for vocational high schools since it promotes vision, values and its goals. It communicates not only to the employees but to the stakeholders and provides the basis for the priorities, strategic plans and work tasks of the organization. The paper focuses on the mission statements of Macedonian vocational high schools posted on their web sites. By content analysis, the research has the aim to evident the presence of mission statement and its elements – words that support entrepreneurial spirit, like: entrepreneurship, innovation, creativity, self-employment. Aside from determining the focus of interest of vocational high schools and their readiness to develop entrepreneurial skills, the research results can contribute to promoting the quality of the mission statements of the vocational high schools.