Indigenous Skills and Entrepreneurship Education: A Critical Blend for Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)
Generally, education is regarded as the most potent for achieving national development. This plausible statement clearly places education beyond any other sector in the onerous drive for national development. Sustainable development goals were articulated by the United Nations to fathom how far away countries are from achieving national development through the creation of National sustainable development strategies. While it is recognized that there are thousands (of unaccountable number) of strategies that could make education sustainable through the various tiers of education, indigenous skill elements are crucial in the delivery of entrepreneurship education for sustainability. Blending the potentials of both systems (entrepreneurship education and indigenous skills) is tantamount to forging sustainable development for the future.
Entrepreneurship Education: An Imperative Tool for Economy Diversification in a Mono Sector Economy (Published)
The study focuses on “entrepreneurship education: an imperative tools for economic diversification”, its purpose is to ascertain the effect of entrepreneurship education as an imperative tool for economic diversification in a mono-sector economy. The objectives of the study are: to determine if the quality of entrepreneurship education given to students is enough to make them successful entrepreneur, to find out if the environment is conducive enough to make entrepreneurship education good enough for a long lasting diversification measure and to ascertain if entrepreneurship education is actually a tool for diversification of our economy. The research questions are: is the quality of entrepreneurship education given to students enough to make them successful entrepreneur?, how conducive enough is the environment to make entrepreneurship education good enough for a long lasting economic diversification measure? is entrepreneurship education actually a tool for diversification of our economy? A survey research design was adopted for the study; a structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collections. The questionnaire was administered on 60 randomly selected students in the five (5) schools in Adeyemi College of Education. The statistical tool used for analysis was mean and standard deviation, to ascertain the difference in responses. Four rating scale was used in eliciting level of response: Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), Disagreed (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD). From the findings some recommendations were made they are: that entrepreneurship education should be sponsored by the government to make it a worthwhile project, that entrepreneurship education curriculum should not be theory oriented but practical, that financial empowerment should be incorporated into the entrepreneurship package to serve as a takeoff fund for the beneficiaries.
Status of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education in Universities in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the status of the implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Delta State, Nigeria. Two research questions and corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive design. The population of the study comprised all the 65 lecturers and 5,000 students in the two public universities in Delta State. The sample size was 530 (lecturers 65 and 497 students) from the two universities using purposive sampling techniques. Assessment of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (AIEEQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts to ensure face and content validity, which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87 using Cronbach Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while independent samples z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. It was found that entrepreneurship education was properly implemented in the undergraduate and post graduate levels in Delta State universities. However, the programme was bedeviled with conspicuous challenges. It was recommended among others that a monitoring team should be set up by the National Universities Commission (NUC) to monitor the progress and shortcoming of entrepreneurship education in the universities.
Management of Trade/Entrepreneurship Education n Public Senior Secondary Schools for Smooth Transition Into the World of Works in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated management of trade/entrepreneurship education in public senior secondary schools for smooth transition into the world of works in Rivers State, Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of all the 234 principals in the 234 public secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. The purposive sampling technique was used. A self designed instrument titled Management of Entrepreneurship Education for Smooth Transition into the World of Works Questionnaire (MEESTWWQ) containing 35 items was used for data collection. Face and content validities were ensured by experts. The internal consistency reliability co-efficient of 0.89 was determined using Conbach Alpha statistics. Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. It was found among others that of all the 35 subjects recommended on the FRN, only catering, dyeing/bleaching, data processing and book keeping were taught. It was recommended among others that the inspectors from the Ministry of Education should extend their inspection to subjects in the trade/entrepreneurship centers for smooth transition into the world of works.
Entrepreneurship Education for Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Citizen Participation in Community Development Activities (Published)
Poverty has been identified as a major set-back to any economy. Poverty had become endemic to many nations of the world especially the less developed. To treat the scourge of poverty, proactive actions and plans, such as equipping citizens with entrepreneurship skills and knowledge must be put in place. This paper therefore, presents entrepreneurship education as a cure to poverty and its curriculum, a frame work for poverty alleviation programmes. The concepts of entrepreneurship education, poverty and participation are fully discussed. The objects of entrepreneurship, goal and the curriculum context of effective entrepreneurship education were also discussed. The relationship between poverty, entrepreneurship and participation were highlighted. The paper concludes that given the immense benefits crewing from entrepreneurship education, and its role enhancing community development activities, the nation should channel its efforts to improve the economy and better the lives of the citizens.
Enabling and Stimulating Entrepreneurship Education in Higheer Education Institutions: Catalyst for Venturesome Youths and Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)
Entrepreneurship is increasingly being recognized as a significant conduct for bringing about a transformation to sustainable products and processes, with numerous high-profile thinkers advocating entrepreneurship as a panacea for many social and environmental concerns. Yet, despite the promise entrepreneurship holds for fostering sustainable development, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the nature of entrepreneurship’s role in the area, and the academic discourse on sustainable development within the mainstream entrepreneurship literature has to date been sparse. While entrepreneurs have long been recognized as a vehicle for exploiting emerging opportunities associated with societal need, we have little understanding of how entrepreneurs will discover and develop those opportunities that lie beyond the pull of existing markets. Thus, while the case for entrepreneurship as a panacea for transitioning towards sustainable development society-wide is valid, there exists major gaps in our knowledge of whether and how this process will actually unfold. This paper focuses on: (i) Factors that challenge the teaching of entrepreneurship education within the Higher Education Institutions to engender sustainable development and venturesome youths; (ii) Strategies to employ in addressing these challenges. Factors that Challenge the Teaching of Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education Institutions; (iii) Imperatives and outcomes of entrepreneurship education and the state of entrepreneurship education in Higher Education Institutions
The Relevance of Entrepreneurship Education to the Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMES) In Nigeria (Published)
Incorporation of entrepreneurship education as a course and subject into the educational curricular of vocational studies, secondary, tertiary institutions and entrepreneurship agencies has become a globally accepted initiative to address the increasing unemployment rates. This study assessed the state of entrepreneurship education and the impact on the development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria. The study observed an insignificant correlation between the existing Nigerian educational system where entrepreneurship education is optional and restricted to only tertiary institutions and entrepreneurship development. It also observed that the withdrawal of entrepreneurship education from the nation’s tertiary educational curriculum would be of little or no effect on the efforts in curbing employment in Nigeria. The paper puts to test, the preceding assertions with the aid of Kruskal Wallis test. From the test, the paper refutes the former assertions on the reasoning that their P-values were less than 5% level of being deemed to be significant. Based on its findings, the study therefore concludes that for entrepreneurship education to be effective in addressing unemployment in Nigeria, it should be incorporated into the nation’s educational system right from secondary school.
The Relationship between Entrepreneurship Education and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions in Ogun State-Owned Universities, Nigeria (Published)
The alarming rate of unemployment in Nigeria has become a major national problem. To abate this problem, the Federal Ministry of Education made Entrepreneurship Education compulsory for all students of higher institutions in the country. This study therefore investigates the relationship between students’ exposure to Entrepreneurship Education and their career entrepreneurial intentions in Ogun State-owned universities. Six hypotheses were generated for the study. The population comprises all final year undergraduates, with a sample of six hundred and nine. Three research instruments were used. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, T-test and ANOVA. Findings revealed that Entrepreneurship Education significantly influences students’ Entrepreneurial intentions. It was recommended among others that Entrepreneurship Education should be practical-oriented so as to have greater participations in classroom interactions which would further enhance motivation.
Relevance of Entrepreneurial Studies as Perceived by Vocational Education Undergraduate Students in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the perception of undergraduate vocational education students on the relevancy of entrepreneurial Studies in Ekiti state. In order to elicit information required for this study, three research questions were developed and answered while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A 17 item structured questionnaire titled vocational education students’ entrepreneurial studies perception (VESESP) was developed for data collection. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study was 84 respondents made up of 97 male and 49 female vocational educational students in the two institutions running vocational education programs in Ekiti state. Face and content validity were carried out on the structured questionnaire by two experts in vocational and technical and education. The Cronbach alpha method was used to compute the reliability of the questionnaire to obtain a co-efficient of 0.79. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the research questions while t-test statistics and ANOVA were used to test the hypothesis. Based on the data collected and analysed, it was discovered that majority of respondent view entrepreneurship education as desirable and that entrepreneurship education prepares students very well for future entrepreneurial careers, there were also no significant differences among students running various degree programmes among other findings. However, it was also observed that there are various challenges facing entrepreneurship education as perceived by the students, this includes; students not having the opportunity to interact with high level entrepreneurs, inability of students to be able to prepare business plan after attending entrepreneurship education classes among others. Recommendations were thereafter made on ways to improve on entrepreneurship education courses in order to achieve the desired objectives of making vocational and technical education graduates to be job creator rather than job seekers.
The Nigeria government introduced entrepreneurship education as a pathway to stimulate self- sufficiency, self-sustainability and self-support culture in students. The aim is to ensure graduates take advantages of personal resourcefulness to be self-employed. This is because entrepreneurship concerns the persistent pursuit of opportunities to create wealth through innovative creation of a product or service that meets customer’s needs using scare resources in a way that results in a growth enterprise which satisfies the expectation of stakeholders whose roles sustain the business. Against this backdrop, therefore, the paper examines the concepts of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education and self-reliance. The paper equally examines the role of entrepreneurship education in self-reliance and economic development and highlighted the challenges for entrepreneurship education in Nigeria such as inadequate funding, lack of materials, entrepreneurship teachers among others. Finally, it recommends that the government should strive to release up to 26% of their annual budget for education as suggested by UNESCO.
Entrepreneurship Education in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: A Remedy to Graduates Unemployment (Published)
Study investigated exposure of under-graduates students to entrepreneurial education for post-graduation job creation ability. The population consisted all the final year students of Educational Administration, Ebonyi state University 2013/2014 academic year totaling 200 respondents. The population served as the sample size. The instrument was a structured questionnaire, subjected to face and content validation by experts in Educational Administration; Measurement and Evaluation units, test for reliability yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.79. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) statistics and population t-test of analysis were used to analyze the data at 0.05 alpha level. The findings showed a significant relationship in the three hypotheses. The result implies that entrepreneurial education is relevant to students with regard to equipping them with skills for post-graduation job creation ability rather than job seekers. The study recommended collaborative efforts of National University Commission with Department of Educational Administration to identify other entrepreneurship programmes to address graduate unemployment on graduation.
The progress of a nation is a function of the level of the resourcefulness of the people which to a great extent, relates to the level of quality of the training and purposeful development of education in that nation. Such progress or development could only occur when an individual in the society is gainfully employed and per capital income is enhanced. This could only be possible when government educational policies are geared towards a functional education that can lead to job creation and also self reliance. Entrepreneurship education is a means through which government could attain such development in the society. Therefore, this paper examines how the role of entrepreneurship education could help in job creation in Nigeria. The challenges of quality entrepreneurship education were also discussed. Finally, the paper made some suggestions on how to overcome the challenges so as to reduce unemployment and enhances job creation in Nigeria.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION, JOB CREATION FOR GRADUATE EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTH-SOUTH GEOPOLITICAL ZONE OF NIGERIA (Published)
In recent time, research studies have shown that entrepreneurship education is necessary for gainful self-employment and self-reliance. The researcher has also observed that self-reliance on the part of graduates is still a mirage. In the Nigerian socio-economic context, youth employment ratio is also on the increase. The study investigated how our graduates are getting along about employment, job creation and entrepreneurship development. Two research questions guided the study. The questionnaire titled Entrepreneurship Education and Job Creation Questionnaire (EEJCQ) of 5 likert scale of 1 to 10 was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using population t-test. The results were tested at 0.05 level of significance with a degree of freedom 549. The results revealed that career intervention in four dimensions of entrepreneurs’ skills, and level of skills acquired after completing entrepreneurship course are significantly very high. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more emphasis should be placed on technical and vocational education and training. Provision of infrastructures like electricity; qualified professional teachers for quality teaching; equipment of trade laboratories and workshops to support the teaching of entrepreneurship courses in the University.
THE SUCCESS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION INITIATIVE AND THE FACTOR OF CONGRUENCE BETWEEN THE OBJECTIVES OF POLICYMAKERS AND IMPLEMENTERS: THE CASE OF SCOTTISH UNIVERSITY LEVEL INITIATIVE (Published)
The aim of this study was to investigate from the perspective of the academics implementing the Scottish University level entrepreneurship education, the effects of lack of convergence between the objectives of policymakers and that of the implementers of the initiative on the success of the initiative. It emerged from the study that most of the academics are of the opinion that entrepreneurship education at the university level would not necessarily result in increasing business start-ups, and so the academics’ objectives for the courses/programmes are not wholly in line with that of the policymakers, leading to a near failure of the initiative as graduate businesses are not in the biotechnology industries as desired by the policymakers but in restaurants and retailing. In view of the Scottish experience of lack of objectives congruence which partly account for the poor outcome of the initiative, governments that may be contemplating initiating similar schemes should have their objectives made clear to the implementing institutions; and there should also be a clearly defined relationship and channels of communication in order to ensure transparency and effective implementation and monitoring.
STRATEGIES FOR REVITALIZING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN TECHNICAL, VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (TVET) TO ENHANCE SELF-EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA (Published)
The study was carried out to determine strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) to enhance self-employment in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 61 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) administrators and 96 entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in the geo-political zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The study found strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in TVET as well as the basic entrepreneurship skills for self-employment and the challenges of revitalizing entrepreneurship education implementation in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should create an enabling environment for smooth running of the laudable entrepreneurship education programme Teachers in TVET should adapt to changes by making themselves available for training and re- training on the nitty-gritty of entrepreneurship education
Transforming Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education Programme in Technical Training Institutions in Kenya (Published)
Effectiveness of implementation of entrepreneurship education programme in technical training institutions in Kenya is in question. Teaching and assessment methods used by teachers are insensitive to entrepreneurship learning, and the training resources provided by the institutions are insufficient. The study examined factors influencing implementation of the programme as conducted in tertiary technical institutions in Kenya. It investigated the influence of teaching and assessment methods, teachers’ network with entrepreneurship practitioners, and availability of training resources. A census survey of entrepreneurship education teachers in technical training institutions in Nairobi County was conducted, using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The findings show that teachers routinely use traditional teaching and assessment methods, and institution administrations do not provide sufficient training resources or support teachers to develop networks with entrepreneurship practitioners. Recommendations include sensitizing teachers to use pedagogies that maximize entrepreneurial learning, and administrators to provide sufficient resources; also establishing a national policy framework to enforce effective programme implementation.