Influence of Strategic Orientation on Performance of Publicly Owned Hotel Enterprises in Kenya (Published)
Firm’s strategic orientation enables a firm to develop optimal performance and sustain competitiveness in the market. Publicly owned hotels have however been faced with many challenges which affects their performance. These challenges included change in technology, competitive environment, social-cultural and economic challenges. The main objective of the study was to establish the influence of strategic orientation on performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. The study was guided by three theories namely; Resource-based view, Goal-setting theory and Dynamic Capabilities View. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. The targeted institutions for the study were all the 9 existing public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample. A total of 54 respondents formed the sample size. The study adopted the use of a questionnaire for middle level managers and an interview schedule for the general managers as the main research instruments. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Both correlation and multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The study established that resource orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya; entrepreneurial orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya; market orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya and that technological orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. The multiple regression findings further showed that all measures of strategic orientation combined (resource orientation, technology orientation, market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation) influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises. This study recommends that the public owned hotel enterprises should widely adopt information technology (IT) to reduce costs, enhance operational efficiency, and most importantly to improve service quality and customer experience. Public owned hotel enterprises should collect information about their current and potential guests’ desires continuously. The study also recommends that public owned hotels should be keen to generate innovations that are then converted into better performance.
Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Entrepreneurial Self Efficacy and Environmental Uncertainty on Entrepreneurial Success (Published)
The study examines the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial self efficacy and environmental uncertainty on entrepreneurial success. Three hundred and eighty one (381) samples drawn from a sample population of Nine thousand, four hundred and fifty (9,450) who are small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Lagos State registered with National Association of Small and Medium Enterprises (NASME), National Association of Small Scale Industrialists (NASSI) and Association of Small Business Owners in Nigeria (ASBON) is the sample population for the study. The sample size is determined using the formula developed by the National Education Association (1960) while proportionate stratified random sampling technique is used to select samples. Primary data on both the dependent variable (Entrepreneurial success) and independent variable (entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial self efficacy and environmental uncertainty) are collected using questionnaire this research instrument. Entrepreneurial orientation measures are risk taking, innovativeness and proactiveness; entrepreneurial self efficacy measures are optimism and overconfidence while environmental uncertainty measures are hostility, dynamism and competitiveness. Measures for entrepreneurial success include both financial and non financial measures namely: profitability, market share, net asset growth, sales growth and government policies. The research instrument is pretested using fifty selected SMEs during the pilot study. The data obtained from the pilot study is analyzed. Cronbach’s Alpha values of 0.664, 0.795, o.791 and 0.85 for entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial self efficacy, environmental uncertainty and entrepreneurial success respectively are determined while the global Cronbach’s Alpha value is 0.853. The statistics of the model summary reveal correlation co-efficient R = .532 indicating that the combined influence of entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial self efficacy and environmental uncertainty has a positive relationship with entrepreneurial success. The R square is .272 or 27.2% signifying that the combined influence of the independent variables explains 27.2% of the variations in entrepreneurial success. The value of F (3,206) = 27.060, p <.05, illustrates that the combined effect of the variables was statistically significant in explaining changes in entrepreneurial success. This is confirmed by a p value which is less than the acceptance critical value of 0.05. The multiple linear regression analysis results show the equation for the tested model as ENT_SU = -8.326 + .423ENT_ORIENT + .075ENT_SELF + .203ENV_UNC. The model shows that the regression coefficients results for entrepreneurial orientation (β = .423, t = 6.990, p = .000), entrepreneurial self-efficacy (β = .075, t = 1.154, p = .250), and environmental uncertainty (β = .203, t = 3.119, p = .002) indicate positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial success. The results show that a unit increase in entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial self -efficacy and environmental uncertainty would lead to an increase in entrepreneurial success in Lagos State by the same proportion. Furthermore, the findings of the study show that entrepreneurial orientation had the highest influence on entrepreneurial success because the p value is 0.000 followed by environmental uncertainty with p value of 0.002, and lastly entrepreneurial self-efficacy with a p value of 0.250. In the model, entrepreneurial self-efficacy is not statistically significant. It can therefore, be concluded that entrepreneurial orientation and environmental uncertainty are significant determinants of entrepreneurship success in Lagos State, Nigeria. Based on these findings, the null hypothesis (H05) which states that entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial self -efficacy and environmental uncertainty has no significant effect on entrepreneurial success is rejected.
Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance of Small and Medium Women Owned Enterprises in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
The purposes of this study aimed at examine the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance of SMEs in Uasin Gishu County. The research questions were; what is the relationship between innovation and performance of women owned SMEs in Uasin Gishu County?, what is the relationship between proactiveness and performance of women owned SMEs in Uasin County?, what is the relationship between risk taking and performance of women owned SMEs in Uasin Gishu County? This study adopted a correlation research design, with the target population comprised of 81 women owners of all small and medium enterprises within Uasin Gishu County. Questionnaire was the main tool of data collection. Questionnaires were administered with the help of research assistants. Chi-square was computed to establish the association between entrepreneurial orientation dimensions and performance. The study found out that innovation X2 (73) = 0.829 p = 0.032, proactiveness X2(73) = 0.716 p = 0.002 and risk taking X2(73) = 0.897 p = 0.002 were significantly associated with performance. The results of this study reveal a relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The study recommended that the Department of Micro and Small-Enterprise Development (DMSED) needs to sensitize women entrepreneurs on strategies for innovation, proactiveness and risk taking in improving performance. The study further recommends that SMEs need to embrace entrepreneurial orientation dimensions: Innovation, proactiveness and risk taking for their businesses to grow. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should be innovative, proactive to acquire new market opportunities and take risks to succeed in a dynamic environment.
Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of Handicraft Industry: A Study of Nepalese Handicraft Enterprises (Published)
This paper represents the role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in business performance of handicraft enterprises in Nepal. The study is conducted among the members of Federation of Handicraft Associations of Nepal. Guided by the post-positivistic paradigm, this study examines the effect of five EO dimensions on handicraft business performance. Simple random sample is employed among 397 population and 196 respondents are asked to respond to the survey questionnaire. Out of 178 responded people, only 161 were found usable. The business performance is measured through the three dimensions, namely efficiency, growth, and profit. The descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis are used to analyze the data and to infer results. However, business status, respondents’ qualification, national coverage, employment generation, and gender equality seemed good but fertile areas of business were found only in tourist areas of Nepal. The findings of correlation and regression represent that autonomy, risk-taking, and pro-activeness and competitive aggressiveness were positively correlated with business performance. However, innovativeness had no correlation with business performance of handicraft enterprises in Nepal. Further, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation were found only the contributors in handicraft business. The empirical findings of this study recommended that the companies should pay proper attention to expand their business in other States of Nepal as well because Nepal has also other potential areas of tourism. The study also found that the handicraft business is well operated in State 3 and 4 where Kathmandu and Pokhara are situated though they are prominent areas of tourism in Nepal.
Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Profitability Nexus: Evidence from Micro Enterprises in the Retail Sector in a Developing Country (Published)
This study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation dimensions (proactivity, risk-taking and innovation) and profitability of micro enterprises in the retail sector in a developing country. The data for the study were obtained from micro enterprise owners who operate retail businesses in Madina-Accra in Ghana. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design, and employed quantitative technique in the collection and analysis of the data. The researchers used convenient and purposive sampling techniques to select 110 research participants for the study. The study employed descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation and hierarchical regression to analyse the data. The study found a significant positive effect of proactiveness and risk-taking on profitability of micro enterprises that operate in the retail sector in Ghana. However, no relationship was found between entrepreneurial innovativeness and profitability. The implications of these findings and recommendations for research, practice and practice were also discussed.