Tag Archives: English

Cohesion and Coherence in English and Arabic: A Cross-Theoretic Study (Published)

Cohesion and Coherence Theory plays a significant role in the field of discourse analysis. Despite the fact that it occupies an important status in the Western linguistic literature, its linguistic roots in other cultures especially those in Arabic have not been paid enough attention. In Arabic, the classical linguistic renown study, namely Al-Nadhm Theory, proposed by Al-Jirjani seems to be an antecedent version,in a way or another, to the Western one. Thus, a scholar investigation of this claim is worth conducting to form a solid and clearer picture about cohesion and coherence as linguistic notions. This has prompted this paper to concern itself with the task of cross-theoretically contrasting the two theories so as to show the similarities and differences between them. Additionally, it attempts to find out some aspects of convergence between them. In association with the aforementioned aims, this study hypothesizes that the Western theory is a merely developed version of an antecedent version, namely the Arabic one. Though the two theories expose differences, they show similarities and share many linguistic areas where they meet. To achieve the aims of this study and test its hypotheses, it adopts a procedure which involves reviewing cohesion and coherence in the two theories in question, contrasting them, and, on the basis of the findings of the contrast, drawing some conclusions that accord with aims and hypotheses of this piece of research work. The conclusions are drawn to show whether the hypotheses of the study are verified or rejected.             


Keywords: Arabic, Contrast., English, coherence, cohesion

An Analysis of the Use of Adverbs and Adverbial Clauses in the Sentences of Junior High School Pupils in the Ashanti Region of Ghana (Published)

The research shifts emphasis from the previously predominant area of analyzing the competence of Ghanaian school children in their use of the English Language by adopting the perspective of descriptive grammarians with much emphasis on process analysis. The study adopted qualitative and quantitative paradigm so as to adequately analyze the extent to which pupils in the Junior High School use adverbs and adverbial clauses in their sentences. In all, 100 pupils were selected using proportionate stratified sampling method.  Essay texts and structured interview guide was used in gathering data from the sampled school pupils. After analysing using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the findings indicate that teachers and accessibility to language learning facilities play significant roles in second language acquisition. 


Keywords: English, Junior High School, Teachers, adverbial clauses, adverbs

Language and Culture as Conflict Resolution Tools: Rethinking English as Lingua Franca (Published)

Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.

Keywords: Conflict Resolution, Culture, English, Language, Lingua Franca

Nomadic Education in Nigeria: Using English to Foster Communal Peace and Enhance the Education of the Herdsmen (Published)

The importance of nomadic education cannot be over-emphasized. The neglect of any segment of the population as experience has shown in the Niger Delta Region of the country is a potential time bomb. If they contribute significantly to the nation’s economy, only time can fuel discontent and ignite their agitation. Education is the birth right of any Nigerian child and this right has been enshrined in the nation’s constitution. This paper address the importance of the nomadic education in the country, their contributions to the nation’s economy, the importance of English language in the promotion of mutual understanding, reduction of communal clashes between nomads and their host communities and the enhancement of the National Policy on Nomadic Education.

Keywords: : Nomadic Education, Community, English, Lineage, Nigeria, Peace

Impediments to Integrating Language Skills in Young Learners’ EFL Classes: Whys and a Way Out via Mini-Sagas (Published)

It is deeply believed that integrating language skills in English as a foreign language classes can contribute a great deal to the success of the teaching-learning process. But, such a pedagogical strategy at times poses a daunting challenge for a high percentage of non-native teachers, namely those teaching primary school sixth graders. In this setting, relying on a questionnaire that was administered to twenty primary school teachers teaching English to grade-six pupils, this paper aims at laying emphasis on exploring the reasons behind the difficulties those teachers encounter in integrating the four language skills in English as a foreign language classes. The results of the questionnaire have shown that there are a number of objective reasons that lie at the root of the issue, in particular the absence of training sessions, the nature of the syllabus, and the fact that English seems to be viewed and taught merely as a school subject of secondary importance. The paper, therefore, puts forward how those teachers can defy the impediments to using the integrated approach to teaching the language. Pedagogically speaking, it gives an insight into how teachers can get round the issue theoretically through mini-sagas and via a practical example lesson including explanatory notes. The study has revealed that sensitizing those teachers to the benefits of the integrative approach to teaching English, and using mini-sagas effectually as a starting point for the use of such an approach can help them get familiar with it through other diverse pedagogical procedures according to the learning activities intended to be performed and the learning objectives planned to be achieved, which can contribute to the success of the teaching-learning process.

Keywords: EFL Teachers, English, Foreign Language, Integrating Language Skills, Mini-Sagas, Sixth Graders

Iconicity vs. Arbitrariness of Sound Symbolism Phenomenon through a Contrastive Analysis Framework (Published)

This paper reports on the comparison and contrast drawn between sound symbols of Persian, English, and Spanish In order to embody the form-meaning relationship from a universal point of view. 140 sound symbols chosen from Persian onomatopoeic dictionary (1996) and their English and Spanish counterparts were first categorized according to Hinton et al.’s (1994) typology. Using Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis the phonemes were described and contrasted in three languages afterwards. Prediction was made consequently. Together the findings suggest that no absolute arbitrariness or iconicity could be considered for sound symbols. As a matter of fact there are different sound symbols categories and each is of a special degree of iconicity/arbitrariness. It is inferred that a continuum can best demonstrate the order and degree of iconicity for sound symbols.

Keywords: Contrastive Analysis, English, Persian, Sound Symbols, Spanish

Improving Language Proficiency and General Knowledge: A Case for Free Voluntary Reading. (Published)

Free voluntary reading is just as its name states. It is free reading; free in the sense that students chooses what material they want to read, choose to read or not to read and to report in class on the reading they have done or not. It is purely reading with no strings attached. This is a strategy voiced by Stephen Krashen and quite a good number of language educators have decided it is worth a short. Research reports support the assertion that those who read more do better in a wide variety of tests. They become better users of language and have a wider horizon of life. They are also reported to have a greater general knowledge. It is in view of these that this paper recommends FVR as a probable solution to the lamentably poor standard of English in schools and the general poor academic outcomes.

Keywords: Academic Outcomes, English, Free Reading, Language, Literature, Student

Language Use And Lexical Attrition: Do They Change Over Time (Published)

The issue of language use has already been assumed to be an important predicting factor for language attrition. Intuitively, it makes perfect sense that second or foreign language learners who make little use of a language experience more attrition than ones who use the language more frequently. Therefore, the availability or the lack of opportunities to use the language could influence the amount of language attrition, let alone an essential variable like vocabulary knowledge. Such language use factors must be considered in any model concerned with explaining FL attrition, and the primary purpose of the present study is to provide evidence about this. It attempts to examine a population of college acquired English among college leavers who vary in the extent to which they have been able to maintain contact with the target language over time. The findings demonstrated that participants rated many of their patterns of contact with English and vocabulary in particular somewhat lower after the end of formal instruction. Furthermore, the most powerful predictor appears to be the use of the internet which is strongly linked to better retention of productive vocabulary test over time.

Keywords: English, Language, Language Attrition, Literature, Vocabulary

Language Use in Arrow of God: A Socio-Linguistic Dimension (Published)

This paper examines the lexis structure and other linguistic features that coalesce to convey the intended message in Achebe’s Arrow of God. It highlights Achebe’s adaptive use of the English language to capture peculiar cultural ideals in the Igbo traditional society. The study analyses the corpus of the novel. Arrow of God and portrays the vocabulary, syntax and expressions that depict the socio-cultural Igbo norms and setting. The analysis explores how Achebe employs lexical and syntactic formations to realize the central message of conflict in Arrow of God. Linguistics styles such as proverbs, transliteration, focalization, lexical borrowings, sentential code-mixing, imageries are discovered. It is these unique that make the novel a master piece in the Nigeria context.

Keywords: Arrow of God, Code-Mixing, English, Language, Socio Linguistics

Theatrical Translation: Problems in Translating ‘The Sandbox’ From Standard English into Central Kurdish. (Published)

Translating is a problematic process, and the problems rooted in different aspects, different types of translation might acquire various obstacles, including literary translation and theatrical translation. Amongst other types of translation, the translation of theater has specific problems, as it deals with text and spoken message. Besides, translating from a developed language like English into a minor language of Kurdish may face some other problems. This article, sheds light on the relationship between translation and theater and the problems faced in translating the theater of ‘the sandbox’ from English into Kurdish, and the how the problems of translation solved through different translational strategies.

Keywords: English, Kurdish, Sandbox, Theatrical Translation, translation

Evaluating Teachers’ Professional Development for ICT Use: Towards Innovative Classroom Practices (Published)

This paper describes an evaluation study designed to investigate the impact of an ICT-Instructional digital innovation in teaching Mathematics, English and Integrated Science subjects from the teacher capacity building professional development programme to classroom implementation at senior high school levels in Ghana. Interviews and survey data were used for data collection following a week professional development programme on the instructional digital learning training. The study demonstrated that the teachers increased in ICT proficiencies but this was limited to their own professional development and not so much of classroom implementation of ICT which results when transfer of learning takes place from training to practice. The study reported that teachers faced a complex mix of factors that when combined, contributed to challenges in transferring the ideas gained in the training programme to the classroom situation. It was evident from the findings that more systematic efforts are needed at the school levels and at the level of stakeholders who implement in-service teachers’ professional development programmes to move the goal of transforming teaching and learning through ICT-based innovations. Based on the outcomes, the study discussed recommendations to help smoothen the transition from teacher professional development programmes to actual classroom implementations in Ghanaian senior high schools and such similar contexts.

Keywords: Classroom, Developmenr ICT, Digital Innovation, English, Ghana, Integrated Science, Mathematics, Teacher

The Difficulties of Learning English As Perceived By a Group of International Students: A Case Study (Published)

This study investigated the challenges of learning English encountered by a group of international students while learning in an intensive English program at a large Midwestern American university. One tenet underpinning this study is that social learning plays a crucial role in L2 learning because it enables learners to be actively engaged in the language learning process. Twenty students (9 graduate and 11 undergraduate), were chosen randomly from the intensive English program to take part in this study. Their ages ranged between 19-26 years, and they came from different countries, including Saudi Arabia, China, Pakistan, India, Jordan, Ghana, Nigeria and Algeria. The study used information gathered by means of the qualitative research method of interviewing. The findings of the study showed that social interaction is one of the major difficulties confronting international students learning English. Difficulties in terms of oral production, comprehension, pronunciation and using the correct lexicon.

Keywords: Education, English, International student, Language, Learning

An Exploration Of The Entry’s Layout In English Dictionaries (Published)

Background: Lexicography is basically focused on the layout, compilation, utility and assessment of general dictionaries and specialized lexicography emphasizes on the layout, compilation, utility and assessment of the specialized dictionaries. An average user of English language, who can also be a translator, usually relies on a dictionary as a reliable source of knowledge. Objectives: The manuscript focuses on the role a dictionary plays in providing help to its readers. It is possible for a dictionary to do so with the help of its structure. The manuscript also explores the elements of the format of the entries with the help of a survey of English dictionaries by viewing the dictionaries’ introductions and examining the format of the entries. Conclusion: The trend of modern publishers and users are similarly seeking to advance lexicography towards offering more selections of information in the volumes of the dictionaries’ which require less time to read or check.

Keywords: Dictionary, English, Grammar, Lexicography, Spelling, Words

Problems of Learning Foreign Languages in Colleges of Education and Universities in Nigeria: A Comparative Study of English and French Languages (Published)

In this study, an attempt has been made to vividly unveil some areas that serve as barriers to easy and effective learning of French and English languages Colleges of education and Universities in Nigeria. It is evident that the teaching and learning of foreign languages in Nigeria, a country of diverse ethnic groups, are hard hit by series of problems. It is hoped that through various researches that highlight different aspects of the learners difficulties, their trauma will be greatly reduced. In view of this, we have made a comparative analysis of the problems and proffered possible solutions to help the teacher as well as the learners. Be it English as a second language or French as a second official language in Nigeria, both are foreign and must be considered as much. Pedagogical approaches are proposed in the paper to enhance the teaching of these languages in Nigeria.

Keywords: Colleges Of Education, English, French Languages, Learning Foreign Languages, Nigeria, Universities


A Sub-variety of English in Cameroon known as Cameroon Francophone English (CamFE) has been hitherto treated dismissively as a performance variety (Simo Bobda and Mbangwana 1993, Simo Bobda 1994) and in some cases not even recognized as a sub-variety of Cameroon English (Kouega 1999). Nevertheless, this variety is growing rapidly, is exhibiting fairly stable, and has systematic features that are significantly different from Cameroon English (CamE). This development is attributed to the change of attitudes of Francophones towards English. That is, we have recently been witnessing an unprecedented trend towards rushing for English among the Fracophones in Cameroon. On the basis of my personal experiences as a teacher of English as a second and foreign language and on some key findings by previous researchers, I look at the implications of this growth on the future of English spoken in Cameroon. The emergence of Cameroon Francophone English and the future of English in Cameroon

Keywords: Cameroon, English, Francophone English

The Use of Literature in an EFL Classroom (Published)

This research aimed at investigating the students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the literature courses offered by the English Department in the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. The Students’ perceptions were examined based on a 5-statement questionnaire which addresses the extent to which students believe the literature courses enhanced their proficiency in the four skills. Overall, the participants viewed the literature courses as effective in improving their English competencies. However, they did not believe that the literature courses helped in improving the oral skills. The results also pointed to some inadequacies which seem to be related the implementation of the literature courses. In order for these inadequacies to be effectively redressed, the researchers recommend that further studies be conducted on other aspects, like the teaching methods and tools used in implementing the courses and the feedback from instructors.

Keywords: Classroom, Effectiveness, English, Literature


The study focuses on the influence of English language in Macedonia, which is a multilingual, multicultural, and multiethnic country, situated in Southeast Europe. More precisely, the study investigates and compares the role of English inside and outside the classroom in two different environments. Firstly, in Tetovo as a multilingual place where quite a lot of people very easily shift from the local languages in use (Albanian, Macedonian and Turkish) and English when necessary, and secondly, in Prilep, as a mainly monolingual place, where from the local languages, mostly Macedonian is used. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data collection includes learners’ questionnaires. The qualitative data phase includes descriptive research by using interviews. Finally, the study identifies several important issues regarding the positive and negative influence of English and compares the participants’ attitudes towards the role and the influence of English in a multilingual vs. monolingual environment. The findings of the study are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and wider, the local government, educational institutions, current and future English teachers and students.

Keywords: Classroom, English, Environment, Influence, monolingual, multilingual


Dryden as the father of English criticism by Dr. Johnson with an emphasis on the author’s style and the criticism is the most important concern in this paper. John Dryden is rightly considered as “the father of English Criticism”. He was the first to teach the English people to determine the merit of composition upon principles. With Dryden, a new era of criticism began. Before, Dryden, there were only occasional utterances on the critical art. (E.g. Ben Jonson and Philip Sidney) Though Dryden’s criticism was of scattered nature; he paid attention to almost all literary forms and expressed his views on them. Except An Essay of Dramatic Poesy, Dryden wrote no formal treatise on criticism. His critical views are found mostly in the prefaces to his poetical works or to those of others.

Keywords: Dryden, English, criticism


According to many studies on idioms, the most difficult ones are those that are linguistically equivalent but conceptually different. The researcher has collected a number of idioms from English and Arabic that belong to this type with a view to detecting the sources of this conceptual difference based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff, 1980, 2003) and the subsequent cognitive literature. The source of difficulty is proven to emanate from cultural encoding, including cultural experience, perspective, range, and gesture. The differences in the connotative load of the idiomatic words can also be a reason for the conceptual variance. The study stresses the need for raising conceptual awareness to support language learning

Keywords: Arabic, Conceptual Metaphor, English, Idioms