Implementability of English Across the Curriculum Strategy in Nigeria: Issues And Prospects (Published)
English Language in Nigeria occupies an important position. Educationally, it is a subject and the medium of instruction at all levels, an official and National Language. As a multi-Lingual nation with over 270 Languages it is also a second language, a lingua-franca and language of almost all human endervours. Yet, fluency in the language has continued to be illusive to majority of even educated Nigerians. This is despite all efforts and use of all known. English methods to promote the language. This paper tries to examine the posibility of implementiing yet another strategy, the English Across the Curriculum (EAC), in the Education System. With a view to attaining reasonable fluency. Attempt is made at giving historical background of the strategy, what it is, and its aims. Its spread across the world is also examined and why many countries implemented it in their education system and the challenges faced, the role of each stake-holder in implementing the EAC has also been pointed out. An indepth discussion is also put in place on the possibility of adopting the system in the target country. Proceeding this, are realisable recommedations for implementing the system. The paper concludes that a country like Nigeria, adopting English as a second Language, a strategy like EAC could be an alternative for attaining fluency and a motivation to students and content area teachers to be positionally disposed to English as a learning tool.
Language is an important vehicle of thought and culture and people’s cultural identity is embedded in their language. Nigeria is a multilingual nation and English which has become a global language serves various functions in the country. It enjoys dominance in different levels and it is employed in the media as a source of disseminating information to the people. The data for this research were derived from one edition of Alaroye newspaper and analysed using Labov’s variability concept which stresses how language systems affect one another within a speech community. A total number of 66 words were identified from the newspaper for analysis. The Alaroye is a weekly indigenous newspaper written in Yoruba language and it has been chosen for this study because of its use of the deviant form and style of writing. The study revealed that many English words have been incorporated into the Yoruba language and such expressions dominate the Alaroye newspaper as journalists modify English words to fit into Yoruba expressions. This paper investigates the usage of these words in preference to their natural equivalents in the Yoruba language to reveal the great influence of the English language; its dominance over the Yoruba language and the attendant effects on the Yoruba language and concludes that English influence on the Yoruba language has greatly affected its orthography as the incursion of these English words will likely, in the nearest future change the normal or natural way in which the Yoruba language is written and used.
Binomials in English and Kenyang (Published)
In linguistics, a binomial pair or binomial is a word pair or sequence of two words or phrases belonging to the same grammatical category, having some semantic relations and joined by some syntactic device. Different languages and cultures have deferent ways of presenting binomials and this can be a problem to those studying English as a second language. There are two main ways in which this linguistic device is formed: Linguistically and non-linguistically. Both Kenyang and English have binomials and the speakers of Kenyang learning or teaching English as a second language encounter some difficulties using and understanding them. We therefore thought it necessary to describe this linguistic phenomenon by looking at the factors involved in their ordering. These factors differ and range from the syntactic to semantic and to phonological principles. Data for this work was collected from published articles and books and cross checked by specialist of the language. The construction grammar theory was used as the bases for our analysis. The findings revealed that the Kenyang language makes use of binomials and that semantics, syntax, pragmatics, phonology and even paralinguistic factors are involve in the placement of these pairs. The findings equally revealed that, gender bias is one of the criteria use in determining which name comes first in a binomial pair .We concluded our findings on part two of this work that male names are use first and are more stable before female names.
Descriptive Analytical Study on the Causes and Impact of Students’ Indisposed Use of University Library on the Educational Process (Published)
The university library is an essential knowledge provider that supports educational process. Nevertheless, it is noted that the university library use rate is low. This research examines the most corresponding causes of this indisposed use, explores the necessary ways to enhance the contribution of academic libraries in the educational process and proposes recommendations that enable the library to achieve its educational aims. Focused on a sample of 800 students of King Abdulaziz University, this paper adopts a descriptive survey-based approach using questionnaires & focus group discussions. The results revealed a clear decrease in the number of library users, and an image of the library as an unimportant accessory.
Semantic Map Model serves as an effective tool for typological analysis of languages, has a practical meaning and feasibility. The temporary use of words as quantifiers of animals in both Mandarin Chinese and English reflects the commonalities and differences between two languages in terms of conceptual dimensions. Based on the semantic map model and quantifiers corpus, this study investigates into the collocations, cognitive mechanisms and mapping in mental space which play significant roles in the construction of semantic construals of classifiers of this type.
How to Teach English Lessons during Prevention and Control of COVID19: A Case Study of a Higher Vocational College in China (Published)
During prevention and control of COVID-19 in China, different modes of online education are conducted in all kinds of schools, from primary to universities. This paper illustrates how College English course is taught in Shandong College of Electric Technology in China. With reference of MOOC and SPOC theories, lessons are carefully redesigned and provided on Chaoxing Platform, one of the 37 leading online education platforms in China. Taking advantage of MOOC, SPOC and micro-course online videos, all lessons are deliberately redesigned and provided either on live or in recordings. Survey shows over 80% students are gratified with the online course and effectiveness of the online course is equal to classroom teaching.
Hindering Impact of Nigerian English and Pidgin on the Learning and Standard English in Nigerian Universities (Published)
English is the language of instruction, study, and testing in all institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. Despite the fact that Nigerian English and Pidgin are means of communication in Nigeria, they pose many problems in learning English in the universities. They are sources of errors and non-standard expressions in English. The two varieties are non-standard and constitute impediment to the learning of accepted official usage. They are widely spoken and understood by many Nigerians. Quite often, a great number of students prefer to express themselves in Pidgin English and Nigerian English rather than go through the mental rigours of speaking simple correct English. Students sometimes use them interchangeably in speech and writing in the course of their studies and assignments. The use of these nonstandard varieties discourages the learning of the accepted standard usage and orthography. This paper discusses the learning problems created by Nigerian English and Pidgin English in our university and recommends strategies for discouraging the negative effects these nonstandard varieties have on sound learning of English as a second language in Nigeria.
Use of Collaborative Small Group Strategy on Standard Seven Learners’ Achievement In English Composition Writing In Public Primary Schools In Kisumu County, Kenya, (Published)
Differeciated learning is what the current systems of education require in order to carter for all learners .Collaborative teaching offers value creation as learners work in their small groups. Everyone in the group has a responsibility to perform and the facilitator supervise to ensure all learners are inclusive in the group activities. While small group strategy is used a lot of ideas are shared, thus a big task achieved. Small group is enormously worthwhile, both for facilitator and learners. This methodology is vital in teaching and learning of composition writing skill. Communication and collaboration is instilled in the learners thus enhancement of the writing of English composition. A ‘cognitive’ approach to small group teaching, building on the theories of Piaget, would propose that learning interactively in small groups is useful to learners since the procedure of debating, decisions, dealing with conflict, and integration different perspectives is a necessary part of how cognitive development takes place. This thought about cognition also underpins the notion of ‘cognitive elaboration (Dansereau, 1988), which points out that cognitive development is based on reformulating or elaborating existing knowledge into new forms – a sort of unlearning and relearning of knowledge. The study objective is : To examine the influence of small groups’ technique on learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. Drawn from Lev Vygotsky (1962; 1978) the vision of pedagogy is based on the idea of learning as an interactive, social process, within which the facilitator directs the transition of the learners into the Zone of proximal development in order to cultivate new knowledge in order to cultivate new knowledge. Pre-test Post-test nonequivalent groups research design was adopted, sample size of 292 was drawn from 6 teacher of English, 6 head teacher and standard seven pupils in public schools. Data were collected via questionnaire, observation schedule and check list. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The study found that for small group learning technique: revised strategy is moderately used (m= 3.80 with SD of 2.960) buzz strategy is moderately (m= 3.40 with SD of 2.106) used in teaching composition and three minutes strategy is highly used (M= 4.20 with SD of 2.269) in composition teaching. The computed z values for brainstorming technique elements revealed a z-statistic value higher than the z Critical value and P-value less than 0.05. Thus, the study rejected the entire five Null hypotheses as there was a statistically significant relationship between: individual group technique, whole class technique, small group technique, round robin technique and relay technique; and learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. The study recommended that similar studies to be carried out using inferential statistics, especially multiple regression analysis to assess how the individual strategies of brainstorming teaching technique contribute to overall learners learning achievements. Other researches can use the Humanist child development theory to carter for the concerns of a paradigm shift to the thinking about holistic development of the learners., the policy makers and implementers ministry of Education and Kenya National Examination Council, to address the use of inquiring-based learning in order to provoke critical-thinking in learners as the new (CBC) get rooted to curb the negative attitude of embracing change of teaching for life and not for exams.
Problems in Arabic-English translation of articles encountered by Saudi Students (Published)
The present study aimed at investigating the problems of translating articles from Arabic into English encountered by a sample of Saudi students. The study employed one data collection tool which was a translation test. The test was administered to 25 fresh students at the Community College of King Saud University in the first semester of the academic year 2019. The examination of the data showed that 57.2% of the students could not translate articles into English correctly. There were four main findings with regard to the type of error made by the students in the translation of articles into English. These were the overuse of ‘the’, the wrong use of ‘a or an’, the omission of ‘the’ and the omission of ‘a or an’. Based on these types of errors, the researcher offered some logical explanations. As this difficulty proved to be serious, the researcher suggested carrying out some large-scale studies to either confirm the findings of this study or add other insights into the topic of the present study.
English for Science and Technology: A Study of Cohesive Devices in Computer Science Texts (Published)
The study examined the grammatical cohesive devices in Computer Science texts through a comprehensive genre analysis. The texts were from eight sub registers of Computer Science. The data was collected through the corpus culled from Computer Science texts. The Systematic Functional Linguistics was used as a model of analysis for the grammatical cohesive devices found in the texts. It was discovered that the texts contained grammatical cohesive in the forms of conjunctions and reference expressions. The study also revealed that absence of ellipsis and substitution in the texts. It was equally discovered that the cohesive devices enabled the Computer Science authors to hang stretches of language together and they signaled relations between sentences. The study further highlighted the functions of the cohesive devices in giving coherence to academic writing. Therefore, the grammatical cohesive devices, is an integral part of any form of writing which connected the ideas logically.
This paper shows that synonyms are inevitable in language. Arabic or English are no exceptions. Both employ synonymy, i.e. synonymy can be within and across languages. It is a controversial issue among linguists of both languages. The study explores the translation of several synonymous lexical items. These samples were taken from Arabic and English specialized dictionaries of synonyms. Through adopting a comparative investigation to these samples, the study explains that the translation of synonyms is problematic in the said languages. The study argues that although Arabic and English have synonyms, each one tackles its synonyms through its own linguistic system, using its own rules. The translation of synonyms in Arabic and English shows that similarities between both languages tend to be less than differences for they differ in different aspects.
Investigating the Instructional Effect of TBLT on Business Students’ English Language Performance (Published)
The aim of this research paper was to explore the instructional impact of Task-Based Language Teaching on English language attainments among 81 second-year university business studies students. The participants were studying a private university located in the surrounding areas of Bangkok, and were introduced to a TBLT learning environment for the duration of one English course (16 weeks). To test the effectiveness of TBLT, t-tests analyses (0.05) were utilised to compare resulting end-of-term performances with prior achievements attained under the conventional form of instruction. Overall, the findings indicated that TBTL positively influenced English language performances when compared to conventional methodologies (TBLT: 60.9 = Grade C+; CONV: 54.93 = Grade C; p [0.0195] = sig <0.05). Nevertheless, the bulk of progress was concentrated in speaking skills (p = sig <0.05), as no significant difference was noted in formal comprehensive examinations. Furthermore, variability analyses highlighted that upper-quartile students showed significant improvements in both major sets of assessments (speaking and formal examinations); while speaking scores for the lower-quartile remained stagnant, and formal examination scores exacerbated altogether. This led to the unequivocal conclusion that learners’ response to TBLT is governed by linguistic potential.
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relationship between various possible components of L2 skill GPA. In theoretical terms, the objective of the study was on examining the explanatory power of the g factor of general intelligence versus multiple intelligences theory through a correlation of five aspects of L2 competence with GPA among a sample of 94 Kuwaiti students of English as an L2. The study was guided by five research questions: (1) Is there a statistically significant effect of intelligence on GPA? (2) Is there a statistically significant effect of aptitude on GPA? (3) Is there a statistically significant effect of personality on GPA? (4) Is there a statistically significant effect of motivation and attitude on GPA? (5) Is there a statistically significant effect of beliefs on GPA? Utilizing an odds ratio approach in which the comparison groups were (a) students who failed and students who did not fail, (b) students who excelled and students who did not excel, and (c) students who achieved at least average performance and students who did not achieve at least average performance, no statistically significant relationships were found between GPA and any of these predictors. The results were discussed in terms of their support for multiple intelligences theory, and some recommendations for future research were made
An Analysis of the Use of Adverbs and Adverbial Clauses in the Sentences of Junior High School Pupils in the Ashanti Region of Ghana (Published)
The research shifts emphasis from the previously predominant area of analyzing the competence of Ghanaian school children in their use of the English Language by adopting the perspective of descriptive grammarians with much emphasis on process analysis. The study adopted qualitative and quantitative paradigm so as to adequately analyze the extent to which pupils in the Junior High School use adverbs and adverbial clauses in their sentences. In all, 100 pupils were selected using proportionate stratified sampling method. Essay texts and structured interview guide was used in gathering data from the sampled school pupils. After analysing using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the findings indicate that teachers and accessibility to language learning facilities play significant roles in second language acquisition.
Gemination is a phonetic phenomenon whereby two identical /sounds/ co-occur in one word or at words boundaries. The co-occurrence of two identical sounds doesn’t matter, what matters is their pronunciation. Whether to pronounce them as one sound or two sounds is a matter treated differently across languages that have geminate sounds. As the present paper restricts itself to two languages only, Arabic and English, it investigates how gemination occurs in the two languages and how it can be represented? Is it restricted to consonants only or it can also occur with vowels? What type of gemination each language exhibits? These questions beside some more others are the main concern of the present paper in which the phenomenon of gemination is clarified in general, then a study of gemination is presented in English and Arabic respectively. There is a common view point which holds that English does not have gemination, but in fact it appears that English has gemination at certain conditions. Although it is unlike Arabic in its realization, but it can be said that gemination exists in English.
Pronunciation Encumbrances for Omani EFL Students at the English Language Centre of the Salalah College of Technology: A Pre Observational Study (Published)
The study investigated the pronunciation encumbrances encountered by different linguistic groups of Omani students in the English Language Center at Salalah College of Technology. The study employed teachers’ observations and inferences as a research method to delve deeper in the nature and causes of the students’ pronunciation difficulties. Teachers’ inferences and narratives constitute the sum total of the students’ pronunciation problems in English as well as their recalled experiences over the span of teaching in the center.
This paper diagrams, classifies, and discusses the usage of kinship terms in Palestinian Arabic. First–of all, kinship terms are genealogically diagrammed from the Ego’s perspective on the bases of sex, generation, affinity and consanguinity. Secondly, kinship terms in PA are classified from structural, functional, and situational perspectives. Thirdly, the PA kinship system is shown to be descriptive, assigning a different term to each distinct relative. After that, P A and English are compared and contrasted, pointing out that whereas PA labels each member of the family with a distinct term, Eng1ish lacks such a distinction. This, in the case of PA, may be due to the importance of the family unit in the life of Arab societies; however, in the case of English it may be due to the lack of concern for the family as an extended unit. This point of view is consistent with the theory which advocates that people‘s needs determine the lexicon.
This paper aims to describe English language teaching as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia. It highlights the nature of the curriculum, teaching procedures and materials. The paper critically reviews the teaching methods, qualifications in addition to concepts related to culture and society.
English nowadays is becoming a second language in many countries over the world. This paper tries to provide a description of the concept English language teaching and learning. The paper reviews different methodologies of teaching English in the education system.
On The Comprehension of the Cause-Effect Relationship between Asperger Syndrome and Pragamatics Language Deterioration in a Bilingual Child with Social Communication Disorder: A Pilot Case Study (Published)
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is often associated with social, cognitive, motor, and language problems, but an estimated number of AS bilingual individuals with this syndrome; especially those with social communication disorders (SCD) typically receive the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Consequently, such inaccurate diagnosis has negative effects not only at the linguistic level, but also at the level of treatment method where AS is merely a subgroup of ASD just like higher-functioning autism (HFA) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Utilizing Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT-3) in Arabic and then in English to test an AS bilingual 12 year-old boy with SCD, the first aim of the current pilot case study was to investigate the cause-effect relationship between AS and pragmatics mechanism where these children, the researchers hypothesize, fail to crystallize implied meaning of the target language (L2), not the source language (L1), which will help identify what language and which of its aspect (s) is affected more. The study also compared two ASD diagnostic methods: Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) and Australian scale for Asperger’s syndrome (ASAS). The purpose was to specify which of these two assessment tools suits more AS individuals with SCD where, again, the researchers claim the former to be more accountable than the latter as it depends on the explanatory approach unlike the latter that follows the exploratory approach. The tests were administered in light of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM–V) and international classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD). To ensure the reliability and validity of the study, the researchers analyzed all case’s monthly and yearly school exams of both English (Case’s L1) and Arabic (Case’s L2) language courses starting with the 1st grade and culminating with the 7th grade in addition to an intelligence quotient (IQ) test that has been given prior to the tests. In addition, series of interviews were held with the parent along with related individuals to the case. Of the two languages, outlined results show significant deterioration in meaning comprehension in both L1 and L2. Compared with ASAS, ADOS found to be more accountable as it provides specific authentic data of the social behavior, cognitive and motor functions and linguistic and communication abilities of AS bilinguals with SCD in standardized and well-documented contexts. Further research on multilingualism and other ASD subgroups using large number of population, different methods and additional clinical resources is needed to turn the study from individuality into commonality; therefore, replicate its findings and generalize its outcomes