Tag Archives: English language teaching (ELT)

PROBLEMS OF CLT IN BANGLADESH: WAYS TO IMPROVE (Published)

The introduction of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to teach English at the secondary and higher secondary levels of education in Bangladesh is a relatively recent phenomenon. Naturally, at this stage, this new approach of language teaching faces different types of problems. The paper aims at studying the problems in effective implementation of CLT here. Experiences of some other countries in this regard are also considered. This research design collects data from ten teachers who are teaching English at secondary and higher secondary levels in Chittagong. The teachers are from different institutions- some from the urban area and some from rural area. The quantitative data come from questionnaire and qualitative data come from interviews. The findings show that teachers experience many difficulties in their classrooms. The sources of the difficulties are various- unwillingness of the teachers to adopt a new system, inadequate training facilities, insufficient teaching aids, conflict with native culture, lack of interest among the learners, etc. However, it is felt that all those difficulties can be overcome, and a favorable condition can be created for EFL teachers to be optimistic for adopting CLT in classrooms.

Keywords: :- Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), English as Foreign Language (EFL), English as Second Language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Grammar Translation Method (GTM)

USE OF MOTIVATIONAL EXPRESSIONS AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN (Published)

The aim of this mixed method research is to find out positive changes in learning and behaviour of the rural students of the nursery class in the government schools at Tehsil Jaranwala district Faisalabad province Punjab Pakistan, by the use of motivational expressions within the context of behavioral perspective of Skinner’s (1957) model of reinforcement. The research makes hypothesis that the ELT teachers in government schools at primary level in Pakistan use such techniques and strategies that do not motivate the students in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the young learners especially in rural context are less interested to learn English because teachers do not motivate the students in the class. The researcher took a nursery class for 37 days and tried to motivate the students to learn English and establish their interest in studies through different motivational expressions. Moreover, a survey questionnaire, consisting of 13 close ended questions and 07 open-ended questions was distributed among 28 male and female teachers of different schools to know their views and comments regarding motivation and use of motivational expressions. The results were presented quantitatively in the form of tables, graphs, frequencies and percentages. The findings of the research results show that more than 75 % teachers agree to the view that there should be motivation in the learners and the use of different motivational strategies, for example motivational expressions, enhance the students’ interest in learning. Moreover, the classroom teaching and the questionnaire results show that students become more motivated towards learning English language when they are positively reinforced in the class. The results can be used as key for seeing the reasons behind the failure of the students at schools as well their misconduct in the society and can be a key to make improvements in both the areas.

Keywords: English as a second language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Motivation, Pakistan, Rural, Students, behaviourism, reinforcement

USE OF MOTIVATIONAL EXPRESSIONS AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN (Published)

The aim of this study is to examine good changes in learning and behaviour in the students at primary level by the use of motivational expressions within the context of behavioral perspective of Skinner’s model of reinforcement. Results can be used as key for seeing the reason behind the misconduct and failure of the students at schools as well in society. For non-native learners of English language most difficult task is to concentrate on learning in the class. The learner is less motivated to learn because he/she has no motivation at all particularly when the learner is at the early age. It is also felt that the teacher’s method and teaching style to teach English at primary level are lacking motivation in the learners. This research make hypothesis that Pakistani young learner especially in rural context is less motivated to learn English because teachers do not motivate students in the class. The finding of the research shows that children become more motivated towards learning English language when they are positively reinforced.

Keywords: English as a second language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Motivation, Pakistan, behaviourism, reinforcement