Tag Archives: Energy

Modelling Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment by Anaerobic Digestion (Published)

In this study, attempt was made to model gas production process from an anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a treatment plant. Apart from the issue of environmental cleanup this process of sewage treatment offers, it has become a viable tool to solving energy problems that exist in many parts of the world. Nigeria has much wastewater and this constitutes environmental pollution when channelled to the freshwaters body. Some wastewater; domestic and industrial, has to be treated before channelling them into waterways and in doing this, biogas can be tapped from the system if anaerobic digesters are designed and incorporated into the treatment plants. In this study, this process of biogas production was modelled to ascertain the amount of energy that can be recovered from wastewater treatment plant, for economic usage in the operation of the treatment plant and municipal consumption. To achieve this objective, equation  was derived and its application yielded a positive result. Results from two different experimental reactors, reactors 1 and 2 (see Table 4.2 above) were used in comparison with the model reactors to investigate performance of the model. Figure 4.1 shows the gas yield for the different reactors investigated. Statistical analysis of the overall results shows that model reactor 1 has a coefficient of correlation (CORR) of 0.95, this demonstrate a good fit with the experimental results obtained from reactor 1. However, a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.15 and 7.49 respectively, was recorded during this process. These values indicate a significantly low error of estimates and shows that the model is reliable.Similarly, model reactor 2 gave a CORR of 0.96 with errors of estimate (MAPE) of 1.34 and RMSE OF 3.12. Meanwhile, it can be observed that both experimental reactor 1 and 2 have a slightly higher values of gas yield than their corresponding model reactors. This trend is rather good in relation to safety in gas production estimate using the model. An overestimating model would be misleading and give a false data when such is needed for energy generation design and operation. . The biogas yield obtained  were used to power a micro gas turbine in order to determine electrical energy output from the system, a process that have now been commercialized for economic benefits. Equation 3.24 was derived and its consequent solution, equation 3.27 was used for that purpose. Figure 4.6 shows the energy output for experimental reactor 1. The result obtained shows a close fit between the turbine output and the model output. Precisely, a CORR value of 0.96 was obtained with a small error of estimate of 2.34 and 8.00 respectively for MAPE and RMSE. Similarly, figure 4.7 shows energy output for experimental reactor 2. In this, the coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.94 with MAPE and RMSE being 2.15 and 3.55 respectively. Figure 4.8 and 4.9 shows the energy output for model reactors 1 and 2 respectively. The CORR, MAPE and RMSE were 0.95, 3.78 and 5.51 respectively for model reactor 1 while a similar value of 0.97, 1.73 and 5.02 were recorded for model reactor 2 respectively. In all, a very good correlation values was obtained to show that energy generation from treatment plant can be modelled given the biogas yield data. It should be noted that turbine plant operational mechanism may vary slightly depending on their capacities; consequently, an updated recalibration of the model would be necessary.

Keywords: Anaerobic reactor, Digestion, Energy, Sewage, Treatment.

An Overview of Energy Crisis and the Renewable Alternatives: The Nigerian Experience (Published)

Among the mirages of challenges confronting the global community today, that of energy is very prominent.  Sometimes, it is the crisis, politics, shocks, uncertainties, tendency for depletion, inadequacy in supply, high cost and non-availability to larger percentages of the people and so compounding the poverty level.  Nigeria is not exempted from all these worries like many other nations of the world.  However, the mark difference in some of these other nations is diversification and development from the non-renewable fossil fuel or hydrocarbon to the renewable alternatives which are eco-friendly, abundant, replenishables, readily available and likely more cost effective and affordable if promoted.  Nigeria is greatly endowed in renewable energy alternatives but with little or an insignificant attention.  In this paper therefore, an attempt was made in explorative research method to have a position paper on Nigeria’s oil industry, the politics and the need to promote the renewable alternatives.  Some research questions dealt with were; what Nigeria’s energy profile is like in the context of the world energy index and what is the relative estimate of Nigeria’s Renewable Energy Base in World’s Renewable Energy Index Profile?  Among others, it was discovered that Nigeria is blessed with diverse alternative energy sources from the various secondary data examined (Hydro-power = 18% and others = 82%).  It is “the others” that this paper seeks to throw more lights on to meet our energy demands.

Keywords: Alternatives, Crisis, Eco-System, Economy, Energy, Hydro-Carbon, Renewable

Environmental Sustainable Building Design and Construction (Published)

Global or national problems are rarely as discrete from one another as we might think. They are often, in fact, linked in complex ways. Both the emergence of global crises, and the policies put in place to address them, can and often do overlap in important ways. Such is the case with the global or national financial crisis which leads to recession in some cases and the broader ongoing global environmental crisis. Amidst this crisis, this paper examinesways of creating sustainable buildings, building design and construction (green buildings) which are structurally stable, functional and healthy for people to live and work in and however reducing carbon dioxide emission both regionally and nationally. Investigations clearly shows that Many natural resources and building materials require mining, processing, refining and ultimately manufacturing, transport and delivery before they are utilized in construction. The energy used during these processes is high and have greater risk of physical, health, financialand environmental implications at large. As a result the emergence of sustainable building, or green building, has brought about an awareness of what the building industry can do to curb high energy use, minimize waste, and create environments that are healthy and productive.

Keywords: Design, Energy, Green Building, Structurally Stable

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations at Wood-Based Burnt Brick Sites in Selected Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

This study evaluated the concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, CH4 and NH3 at sixteen wood-based burnt brick sites selected from eight purposively sampled Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State. The six greenhouse gases were monitored for two years, from 2012 to 2013, using CROWCON Gasman Digital Gas Meters. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analyzing collected data. Results indicate that the concentrations of each of the greenhouse gases were significantly much higher during the dry season compared to their wet season concentrations (p<.0.5). There were also significant differences in the inter-local government concentrations of the assessed gases within the same period. The use of fuelwood to burn bricks is believed to have principally resulted in the observed significantly higher concentrations of the greenhouse gases during the dry season, from the months of November to March, and corresponds with the season of active wood-based burnt bricks production. The production of perforated bricks can reduce the volume of fuelwood used since the bricks are hollow and can be cured faster, and thus save energy cost as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greener alternative energy sources (like solar, wind, liquefied hydrogen gas and hydro) should be used in firing bricks as this can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning wood at brick sites.

Keywords: Burnt Brick, Energy, Gas Concentrations, Greenhouse, Nigeria

Industrial Activity and Environmental Pollution: A Panel Data Analysis (Published)

Can good environmental policy and planning reduce the negative external consequence that industrial activity can cause, to the environment? To what extent is the current level of industrial activity causing environmental degradation and affecting regional ecological environment across? Industrialization in many developing and developed countries is often associated with negative environmental consequences such as noise pollution, air pollution, water bed pollution and land degradation. Industrial waste and waste attributable to consumables from industrial final products also accounts for more than 65 Percent of all known waste worldwide IEA Report 2013. This study investigates the effect of regional Industrial Activity on environmental pollution using data from six regions worldwide. It was found that industrial activity were a principal causative agent of environment pollution and it is suggested that strategic planning and good policies to mitigate environmental pollution should be strengthened.

Keywords: Energy, Entrepreneurial Innovation, Environmental Pollution, Industrial Activity, Panel Data and Quantitative Economics

The Role of Soil and Land Features of Iran Native Architecture &Energy Management and Sustainability (Published)

Today, management of consumption energy is important for architecture. Traditional buildings in Iran have employed some ingenious passive techniques especially in hot regions in order to restore thermal comfort and coordinate with the local environment and climate. Architecture soil is ancient Iranian architecture and the use of soil qualities such as high thermal capacity and thermal 7-hour delay in the management of energy consumption and achieves sustainable architecture and green. In this research, study native architecture in order to introducing appropriate solution for achieving sustainability. The methodology of this study is descriptive –analytic and collecting data is done by documents-library.at finally, has been proposed strategies in about mention method in order to achieving sustainable architecture in Iran.

Keywords: Energy, Iran Native Architecture, Soil, Sustainable Architecture

Russian Interest in Central Asia in Natural/Energy Resources (Published)

Natural/energy resources are considered as the key factors of the nation’s economic development. In the modern world, energy has been considered as the lifeline since it is required in almost every human activity. In order to support national development, any country wants to exploit as much natural/energy resources as possible (Skipka and Theodore, 2014). The powerful countries are not only using their own resources but also paying interests to resources of other countries. This assessment tires to critically explore Russian interest in Central Asia in natural/energy resources.  

Keywords: Asia, Economic Development, Energy, Russian, resources

The Role of Soil and Land Features of Iran Native Architecture and Energy Management and Sustainability (Published)

Today, management of consumption energy is important for architecture. Traditional buildings in Iran have employed some ingenious passive techniques especially in hot regions in order to restore thermal comfort and coordinate with the local environment and climate. Architecture soil is ancient Iranian architecture and the use of soil qualities such as high thermal capacity and thermal 7-hour delay in the management of energy consumption and achieves sustainable architecture and green. In this research, study native architecture in order to introducing appropriate solution for achieving sustainability. The methodology of this study is descriptive –analytic and collecting data is done by documents-library.at finally, has been proposed strategies in about mention method in order to achieving sustainable architecture in Iran.

Keywords: Energy, Iran Native Architecture, Soil, Sustainable Architecture

Identification of the Person through the Iris of the Eye (Published)

The identification of a person through the iris of the eye of the very important issues to prove his identity. It was a preliminary treatment of the samples used in the study program. Then the samples classified into four groups namely (flower iris, jewels iris, shaker iris and stream iris. Have been through the program to find statistical features of each sample from each group and then re-create these features by way wavelet using MATLAB software, and these samples were (1) (15image of the iris of the type flower iris). (2) (15image of the iris of the type jewels iris). (3) (15 image of the iris of the type shaker iris) (4) (15 image of the iris of the type stream iris). When treatment was extracted a number of Mini (mean, std., var., Energy, Homogeneity, and Entropy). Features that represent each iris were used artificial neural network with a reverse spread as a way to distinguish. The four varieties and the number of inputs to the neural network Is six (the number of statistical features used) for all samples were neural network training them and extract precision results to distinguish primary treatment samples. Conversion technology application wavelet using the study samples and extract the same as the previous samples after image processing and conversion wavelets using (wavelet-2D)     a reverse spreading neural network as a way to distinguish the four varieties previous input itself For all samples)

Keywords: Energy, Entropy. Artificial Neural Network., Flower Iris, Jewels Iris, Mean Std., Shaker Iris and Stream Iris, VAR, homogeneity

ENERGY PRODUCTIONS FROM SELECTED CROP RESIDUES THROUGH ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN A FED-BATCH LABORATORY SCALE REACTOR AT MESOPHILIC TEMPERATURE (Published)

The present energy crisis has stimulated various research programmes to evaluate energy potentials of renewable energy sources. This work evaluated and compared the energy produced from anaerobic digestion of maize stalk (MS), maize cobs (MC) and rice straw (RS) by batch experiment at mesophilic temperature (37◦C). The study was carried out in a laboratory scale batch digester. The digestion bottles were fed with 9.95, 11.70 and 7.53 g, respectively, which were calculated. The digestion took place for a period of 34 days after which the gas production was noticed to be below 1% of the total gas produced till that time. The biogas yields from organic dry matter (oDM) of MS, MC and RS were found to be 357.10 l. kg-1 oDM, 514.31 l.kg-1 oDM and 324.54 l. kg-1 oDM respectively after 34 days digestion time. Methane yields (oDM) of MS, MC and RS were also found to be 222.39 l.CH4 kg-1 oDM, 298.39 l.CH4kg-1 oDM and 211.30 l.CH4kg-1 oDM respectively. The biogas/methane yields from fresh mass (FM) of MS, MC and RS were found to be 147.59 l. kg-1 FM / 91.91 l. kg-1 FM, 180.65 l. kg-1 FM / 104.81 l. CH4kg-1 FM and 177.29 l. kg-1 FM / 115.43 l. CH4kg-1 FM. The equivalent energy of MS,MC and RS were found to be 9.35, 13.47 and 8.35 MJ respectively. Also, MS, MC and RS maize stalk were found to have methane concentrations of 61.9, 58.0 and 65.1%, respectively. This study has established that among MS, MC and RS, MC has the highest biogas and methane yieldsand in turn, energy potential

Keywords: Batch experiment, Energy, biogas potential, maize cob, maize stalk, mesophilic temperature, rice straw

GHANA AND THE LIGUIDIFIED PETROLEUM GAS DILEMMA CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF GHANA’S LPG POLICY (Published)

Ghana adopted LPG policy intervention as a recipe of dealing with the domestic cooking energy crises. Since the 1990s, Ghana has made several efforts to promote the usage of LPG as a domestic source of energy with the intention of curbing the problems posed by fuel wood and charcoal production to the vegetation in the country. Drawing from only secondary sources of data for the paper, it has been realized that, there has been an increased rather in the demand for fuel wood and charcoal. The aim of this paper is to examine the policy and the way forward especially now that Ghana may be extracting her own natural gas

Keywords: Charcoal, Energy, Fuel Wood, Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Energy Efficient Housing as a Mitigating Option for Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)

This paper discusses the capacity of energy efficiency in housing to serve as a panacea to climate change. Drawing from secondary sources, the study revealed that energy is required in houses for optimum performance. However, in Nigeria, the energy required is mostly generated from fossil fuel which emits greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gasses result in the depletion of ozone layer which causes global warming and by extension, climate change. It recommends among other things, proper landscaping, north and south orientation of houses, natural vegetation, natural lighting, the use of energy efficient electrical and mechanical appliances and the use of green power. The paper concluded that energy efficient housing environment that employs these parameters will experience reduced global warming and climate change associated challenges.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Housing, Mitigating Option, Nigeria

Energy Efficient Housing as a Mitigating Option for Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)

This paper discusses the capacity of energy efficiency in housing to serve as a panacea to climate change. Drawing from secondary sources, the study revealed that energy is required in houses for optimum performance. However, in Nigeria, the energy required is mostly generated from fossil fuel which emits greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gasses result in the depletion of ozone layer which causes global warming and by extension, climate change. It recommends among other things, proper landscaping, north and south orientation of houses, natural vegetation, natural lighting, the use of energy efficient electrical and mechanical appliances and the use of green power. The paper concluded that energy efficient housing environment that employs these parameters will experience reduced global warming and climate change associated challenges.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Housing, Mitigating Option, Nigeria