An Analysis of Energy Consumption Pattern in Wheat Production in District Shaheed Benazir Abad Sindh Pakistan (Published)
Wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) is the main staple food for most of the population and largest grain source o the country. It occupies the central position in formulating agricultural policies. It contributes 13.1 percent to the value added in agriculture and 2.7 percent to GDP. Area and production target of wheat for the year 2012-13 had been set at 9045 thousand hectares and 25 million tons, respectively. Wheat was cultivated on an area of 8805 thousands hectares, showing a decrease of 3.6 percent over last year’s area of 9132 thousand hectares. However, a bumper wheat crop of 24.2 million tons has been estimated with 3.9 percent increase over the last year’s crop of 23.3 million tons. The prospects for wheat harvest improved with healthy fertilizer off-take and reasonable rainfall during pre-harvesting period. Energy is a necessary of life for human beings all over the world due to its function in strengthening the security and contentment of the people. Energy demand is growing with the passage of time due to infrastructural and industrial development. Energy is required to perform all the human activities. It is need for food preparation, water heating and cooling, for lighting, for production of goods etc. The study was focused on all types of energy (fossil fuels, chemicals, animals dung, animate etc). A sample of 60 farmers was selected from study area. A pre tested questioner was used to collect data from selected respondents through personal interviews. Descriptive statistics and Cobb-Douglas production function was applied to analyze the data. Result shows that wheat farmer achieved highest amount of net energy which was calculated as small, medium and large farmers is 1368336.88, 1698003.79 and1702527.75 MJ/acre respectively. In production of wheat large, medium and small farmers achieve amount of net energy which was calculated 41525.06, 38590.99, 39095.33 MJ/acre. The impact of various energy inputs on yield was studied. The share of various energy types in total cost of production was estimated. Commercial energy (diesel and electricity) consumed highest amount of energy in production of wheat.
Performance Optimization of a Multistage Centrifugal Pump for Heavy End Recovery Using Desirability Function Approach (Published)
Optimal geometrical (operational)/performanceparameters of a radial split axial pull-out barrel casing multistage centrifugal pump of BB5 class used for heavy end recovery in a natural gas to liquid plant was determined in this study. Impeller discharge diameter,pump suction pipe diameter, impeller blade length, blade discharge angle, impeller discharge widthand radial tip clearance constitutethe factors whose influences on the pumps major flow parameters(efficiency, flow rate, head and speed) were evaluated. The experimental plan applied is completely randomized single replicate Box-Wilson central composite circumscribed block design comprisingthirty-two factorial points, ten centre pointsand twelve axial points while desirability function approach was used in the multi-response optimization of response function of the pump parameters developed. Results revealed 417, 366 70, 39°, 36 and 64 as the optimal pump suction piping diameter, impeller discharge diameter, impeller blade length, blade discharge angle, impeller radial tip clearance and impeller blade discharge widthrespectively. Performance analysis showed that the pump operates with an efficiency, flow rate, head and speed of 78.30, 191.55, 967.50 and 2505 respectivelyat these optimal factors setting and itsenergy consumption reduced by 1.2%.
ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL SECTOR PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA- A MARGINAL IMPACT ANALYSIS (Published)
Given the impact government policies can have on economic variables and activities, it is imperative for policy makers to know how such policy action determine the macroeconomic performance. Applying the marginal impact estimation technique with standard errors corrected for serial correlation on the dummy variable structural break model, this paper found that economic liberalization has a significant impact on performance of the Nigerian manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and power subsectors, respectively and the aggregate industrial sector. The interaction of the policy with trade openness and financial deepening dampened the performance of the manufacturing subsector while its interaction with labour force is growth enhancing. Also the interaction of the policy with energy consumption was negative but financial deepening and energy consumption has dampening effect on the performance of the mining and quarrying subsector. While it has enhancing impact on the aggregate industrial sector and was not significant on mining and quarrying and power subsectors, economic liberalization decreased the performance of the manufacturing subsector. Beside, financial deepening has mix impact on the performance of the industrial sector. While it has increasing impact on the aggregate industrial sector it impact on manufacturing performance is negative.