Global progress towards gender parity across critical areas of life is still at the disadvantage of women. Women are in a disadvantage position in such areas as the ownership and control over assets, access to affordable credit, social reproduction, to socio-political representation, cultural practices and participation in formal sector of the economy. The consequence of such disparities limits the extent women can exercise choice and make decisions economically, socially, and politically. Therefore, how to flatten the curve and reverse these disparities remains the subject of the subsisting women’s empowerment conundrum about whether others can externally determine empowerment, or if women have to be the agents of their empowerment. What then defines the empowerment framework and understandings of the form that empowerment should take remains debatable. This paper critically reviewed how the empowerment of women has been discussed and conceptualised within development studies, with particular focus on women’s economic empowerment. The paper further looked at issues around women’s empowerment measurement and indicators; identified some frameworks for measuring women’s empowerment. Lastly, the author proposed a conceptual framework within which women’s empowerment might be assessed. To this end, women’s economic empowerment was defined as the extent women exercise control over decisions relating to accessing and use of resources and the resulting household reality.
Perception of Stakeholders’ On Empowering Women for Socio-Economic Development in an Enduring Democracy in North- West Nigeria (Published)
The paper examined the stakeholders’ perception on empowering women for socio-economic development in a enduring democracy in Nigeria. Women are also in the capacity to assist government achieve its laudable goals and objectives through public enlightenment and national mobilization campaigns. In general, education wipes away ignorance, political apathy and encourages mutual; understanding and cooperation among the various strata in any given society. The population of this study consisted of all the stakeholders in education that comprised the students, graduates, teachers, school administrators, Ministry personnel, Quality Assurances officers in the North-west zone of Nigeria. The population total was 1970 out of this numbers, 1261 respondents were proportionately selected for the study. Four states were selected out of the seven North-western states using purposive sampling technique. 3 research questions were raised for the study and three (3) objectives, descriptive statistics was used to answer the research questions.. The study concludes that significant association exist between empowerment and socio-economic development of women by stakeholders’ in an enduring democracy in’ Nigeria. It was recommended that empowerment can successfully be achieved by designing and implementing well planned and organized educational programmes . Women need greater access to educational opportunities, skills acquisition and position of authority for them to be truly empowered.
Pedagogy for Teaching and Promoting Social Justice and Human Rights an Early Childhood Educational Institutions in Nigeria (Published)
Every state is desirous of quality and meaningful development where empowerment, emancipation and liberation of the citizens is key. Achieving and enjoying a state where empowerment, emancipation and liberation of the citizens are norms can only be possible through education especially one that is provided to citizens in their early childhood days and in an atmosphere where the fundamental human rights of the citizens and the citizens’ pursuit of other socio-moral and socio-political ideals are guaranteed. An educational provision that promises the Nigerian society such value-laden ideals is one that is deep-rooted in social justice and human rights. Using the philosophical method, this paper focuses on the pedagogy for promoting social justice and human rights among early learners in Nigeria. The study is strongly anchored on the position that early and sound foundations of Nigerian learners on issues that border on social justice and human rights (individual welfare, public welfare or national interests) have potentials to challenge learners into indulging in abstract, creative and critical thinking that revolve around human welfare and the welfare of the state. The study concludes by raising pedagogical signposts through which the ideals of social justice and human rights can be inculcated in early childhood learners in Nigeria.
The study examined strategies for empowering rural women for sustainable livelihood in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State. the objectives include to determine factors constraining women empowerment and to identify strategies for women empowerment in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 300 women (respondents). Data were collected using structured questionnaire designed in sections, with each section eliciting responses in respect of the research questions. A test-retest method was used to ascertain the reliability of instrument with r-value of 0.85. data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A minimum mean of 2.50 was accepted as the standard. The findings showed that majority (43%) of respondents were between the age range of 40-49 years, majority (40%) had basic education while crop family processing was the primary occupation of majority of the respondents. The study also showed that women empowerment were constrained by gender discrimination; poverty; traditional belief, among others as equal opportunities for access to resources and elimination of discrimination to work and wages were some of the identified strategies for women empowerment. The study recommended that government at all levels should formulate policies that would encourage equal distribution of power right across gender.
The rapid changes in the socio-economic environment and the consequent pressures for educational reforms make it more than necessary to empower teachers who need to redefine their teaching strategies to meet students’ differentiated needs. Related studies suggest that teachers need to feel empowered to be effective and empower students. Therefore, the empowerment of teachers is at the center of the processes for quality improvement and school upgrade. The purpose of this study is to capture the views of primary education teachers on the opportunities for professional empowerment provided in their school environment. A total of 124 primary education teachers in Ilia Prefecture who participated in the quantitative sample survey completed an electronic questionnaire based on the Teacher Empowerment Scale. The presentation and analysis of the findings show that participants in all dimensions of empowerment have moderate to high degree of agreement. Specifically, the highest average dimension is that of decision-making, while the lowest average is that of professional development.
Assessment of the Contribution of N-Power Programme to Youth Empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of N-Power programme to youth empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study were; to determine the contribution of N-Power programme to youth empowerment in Cross River, to identify challenges facing the programme in ensuring empowerment of youth in the study area and to suggest ways of improving the N-Power programme for more effective youth empowerment in Nigeria. The study adopted cross sectional survey design while cluster random sampling was used to select beneficiaries. Questionnaires were used to collect data as Key Informant Interview was also used to compliment Questionnaire. Furthermore, the study used percentages for analysis of data. The study discovered that the beneficiaries of N-Power programme were mostly composed of N-Teach strand of the programme, followed by N-Health strand, N-Agro and Voluntary Assets and Income Declaration Scheme (VAIDS) strands respectively. The study also found that N-Power contributed to empowerment of youth through poverty reduction, proficiency skills in ICT, financial empowerment, on the job experience and investment in small scale businesses. However, there were challenges faced by the programmme in empowerment of youth which included delay in payment of allowance, unpaid allowances, distance to working places and teacher training for most of N-Teach beneficiaries. The study therefore recommended for prompt and timely payment of the stipends to beneficiaries of the programme by Federal government, timely sorting of problems of unpaid allowances, posting nearest to place of residence and teacher education for N-Teach categories.
The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the impact of quality of work life on job involvement within the Kuwaiti industrial environment. It also seeks to explore the impact of empowerment on this relationship. A total of 300 questionnaires were submitted to the Public Authority for Industry in Kuwait, of which 231 were completed. The results indicate that quality of work life has both direct and indirect impacts, mediated by empowerment, on job involvement. The findings suggest that firms should pay close attention to quality of work life to ensure a favourable environment within the organization for retaining employees. The study concludes by explaining the limitations involved and suggests future research directions to enhance the quality of the work life in Kuwaiti organizations.
The Empowerment of Micro and Small Industry of Wood Lathe by Department of Industry and Commerce :Case Study At Tanggung Village, Blitar, Indonesia (Published)
Along with the growth of micro and small industries of wood lathe, there are also some problems in its development. Therefore it is necessary to empowerment effort intensively and integrated executed by related institution which in this case is Department of Industry and Commerce. This paper aims to determine the empowerment of micro and small industries undertaken by the Department of Industry and Commerce, what are the constraining factors in the implementation and the efforts that have been done by the Department of Industry and Commerce in conducting the development of micro and small industries of wood lathe in Tanggung Village, Blitar, East Java. Observation method used is explorative method with inductive approach. Data is collected through observation, interview, and documentation. The results showed that there have been efforts made by The Department of Industry and Commerce in Blitar for micro and small industries of wood lathe. In the implementation of the empowerment activities, we found some obstacles such as difficulties in terms of resources, public responses, communications, and institutional.
Against the background of scholarly debates and controversies on the subject, this micro study critically examines the much generalized and romanticized influence of the great Benin Kingdom on state formation among the west Niger Igbo. It thereby sets out to fill the gap in the historiography of state formation in the area, with the Kingdom of Ubulu-Ukwu as a case study. The study adopts the historical method of description and analysis, hinged on a chronological framework to posit the Nri-Awka area as the source of the initial stimulus for the peopling, kingship and title systems of Ubulu-Ukwu. It argues that relations with Benin were stimulated by Benin’s needs for the vital services for which Ubulu-Ukwu was famous. These included the security of Benin coronations and the mystical protection of the Oba’s throne, state regalia and the magical paraphernalia necessary for his vitality and rejuvenation. Ubulu-Ukwu, being dynamic, through adaptation and emulation, effected adjustments to its monarchical system. Thus the Benin factor in political and cultural developments at Ubulu-Ukwu was not the result of conquest and imposition, despite a mid-18th century war between the two polities. The study concludes that the tendency to view west Niger Igbo history in the context of Benin domineering military influence and political tutelage which British imperialism encouraged is out of tune with historical reality.
Cultural Pitfalls and Splinters That Hinder Women’s Empowerment in Butchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood (Published)
Regarded as the fair sex in the traditional society, Igbo women come across traditional barriers that bedevil human dignity and bring them to sooth their voice into an acceptance of their degrading social status. In so being, it will be interesting, in this paper, to browse through the pages of social obstacles that torn apart the Igbo women’s elan toward empowerment. Thereby, an in-depth analysis of the Igbo stratification will put on surface the real and various obstacles that give ground to women’s disability to climb the scales of freedom and power of all kinds.
The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labour Market, Social, Political and Community Life. Adults need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with the right skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labour market. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made to the categories of interpersonal relations management, self-management, self –awareness and self-confidence. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers of adult education to help learners develop communication, cooperation and tolerance, face difficulties, improve this lives, connect emotionally with others, join in community, sustain social connections.
The focus of this paper was to show the instrumentality of youth empowerment to nation-building in Nigeria. It observed that the National Youth Service Corps Scheme (NYSC), the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) as agencies of youth empowerment had accelerated the socio-economic development of the country. The NYSC established by Decree 24 of 1973 encouraged members of the Corps to seek employment all over the country, thus promoting occupational mobility. Participants were exposed to the mode of living of the people in different parts of the country with a view to removing prejudices, eliminating ignorance and confirming, at first hand, the many similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups. The NDE ran the National Youth Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme, Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme, Agriculture Sector Employment Programme and Special Public Works Programme. NAPEP had employed, over 1,500,000 youths under the Capacity Acquisition Programme and 1,000,000 unemployed graduates under the Mandatory Acquisition Programme. Providing employment to youths was a prudent way of making them better not bitter and therefore fighting crimes often associated with idle hands. The paper recommended that more Nigerian youths be trained as craftsmen and technicians to make for self-reliance. Indeed, the presence of unemployed youths could pose serious challenges to existing peace in any community
Socio-Economic Factors Affecting ICT Utilization by Youths in Fish Farming In Kaduna State, Nigeria (Published)
Background ICT brings forth new development surfacing in agriculture. Youths need to improve their ICT abilities for the promotion of agriculture. This study was carried out in Kaduna state Nigeria. Objective the broad objective of the study was to determine the socio – economic factors that affect the utilization of ICT in fish production by youth in Kaduna State. Methods 100 youths were randomly selected and administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression and correlation analysis. Results The results showed that age, education, pond size, quantity of fish produce and training contributed significantly to ability to use ICT in fish production. Some factors were found to be positively related to ICT utilization. Age, education and training made positive contributions at 5% level of probability. Conclusion It was therefore concluded that youth need resources (education and training) in order to utilize ICT in food production. It is recommended youth need empowerment and training to utilize ICT for food production
This paper looks at improving women‘s participation in agriculture and dairy industry in Pakistan. The paper discusses the design, planning stages and the implementation process. The later part of the report presents the key findings of agriculture and dairy industry followed by a discussion and an overall evaluation of the project. Recommendations for improving women’s participation in agriculture in Pakistan conclude this paper.
EFFECTS OF GENDER BASED DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES ON POVERTY REDUCTIONAND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN NGOR –OKPALA AREA OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)
This study assessed the effect of gender-based discriminatory practices on poverty reduction and women empowerment in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria One hundred and twenty (120) female respondents were randomly selected from twelve communities, ten respondents from each of the twelve communities. Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and mean. The results showed that most of the respondents were 51-60years of age and majority of the women were married and mostly secondary school leavers who had farming as their major occupation. The result showed that women are being discriminated upon in decision making, education, inheritance (land), in employment and some of these discriminations are caused by cultural and religious laws which restrict women from fully utilizing their potentials. The result also showed that discrimination of women leads to increased poverty level and psychological effect such as low self esteem and lack of confidence, subsequently affecting poverty reduction and women empowerment negatively. Based on the major findings, the following recommendations were made. Cultural and religious laws should be restructured to suit modern day society, equal educational opportunities should be provided to women, and skill training facilities should be provided to empower women. Also, Government should formulate policies that allows for equal right in inheritance especially land. Women should be given equal right and power in decision making, equal opportunities for women to participate in Various Societal Activities.
Effects of Gender based Discriminatory Practices on Poverty Reduction and Women Empowerment in Ngor –Okpala Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)
This study assessed the effect of gender-based discriminatory practices on poverty reduction and women empowerment in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria One hundred and twenty (120) female respondents were randomly selected from twelve communities, ten respondents from each of the twelve communities. Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and mean. The results showed that most of the respondents were 51-60years of age and majority of the women were married and mostly secondary school leavers who had farming as their major occupation. The result showed that women are being discriminated upon in decision making, education, inheritance (land), in employment and some of these discriminations are caused by cultural and religious laws which restrict women from fully utilizing their potentials. The result also showed that discrimination of women leads to increased poverty level and psychological effect such as low self esteem and lack of confidence, subsequently affecting poverty reduction and women empowerment negatively. Based on the major findings, the following recommendations were made. Cultural and religious laws should be restructured to suit modern day society, equal educational opportunities should be provided to women, and skill training facilities should be provided to empower women. Also, Government should formulate policies that allows for equal right in inheritance especially land. Women should be given equal right and power in decision making, equal opportunities for women to participate in various societal activities
Strategies for Empowering Individuals for Self-employment through Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. (Published)
The study was carried out to determine the strategies that can be employed to empower individuals for self-employment through Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 54 technical teachers and 73 technical instructors in the technical colleges and skill acquisition centres in the zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The strategies determined are agreed upon as empowerment strategies as well as the training facilities and challenges of TVET in empowering individuals for self-employment. It was recommended that public/private partnership should be encouraged in the funding and management of TVET to empower individuals for self-employment.
Functional Vocational and Technical Education Curriculum for Sustainable Youth Empowerment in Nigeria (Published)
This paper was designed to look at vocational and technical education curriculum. Vocational and technical education is a programme designed for sustainable youth empowerment in Nigeria. Vocational and technical education cannot be overemphasized for development and growth of the economy. The paper treated the topic under the following sub- headings: Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria, Functional Vocational and Technical Curriculum Implementation, Factors Militating against Implementation of Functional Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria, and Promoting Vocational and Technical Education Curriculum for Sustainable Youth Empowerment in Nigeria. The paper was concluded and recommendations were made to further improve on the vocational and technical education programme. Some of the recommendations are : Government should delegate inspectors from ministry of education or set-up an implementation committee that will advise government on better ways of monitoring, controlling and implementing the affairs of vocational and technical education programme
That there is a relationship between literature and a society, which produces it, is no longer news. However, the extent of the perceived interconnectivity between literature and its milieu remains a serious argument among literary theorists, historians and other practitioners of creative arts generally. In an attempt to contribute to the debate on the meeting point between literature and the environment which paves the way for its creation and production, we examine SembГЁne OusmaneвЂ™s Guelwaar with the view that Art is not only for its own sake and purpose but also for the development of the society, which it claims it is a product of. This paper therefore is premised on the pragmatic approach which stresses that literature performs certain functions. The paper concludes that literature is a potential tool for sustainable developments in various human societies.