Tag Archives: Employment

Acute Skills Deficiency Syndrome “And Employment Creation in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

Since 1999, successive Governments of Cross River State (CRS), Nigeria have successfully transformed the State to a preferred destination for business and leisure. But notwithstanding the impressive macroeconomic performance, youth inactivity has remained very high, and it is believed that Crossriverians suffer from acute skills deficiency syndrome (ASDS), which is not having the required skills to secure good jobs or start and run viable businesses. The paper notes that occupational structure in the new economy is increasingly bipolar, characterized by the juxtaposition of two main groups of workers: high skilled professionals on the one hand; and low skilled workers on the other hand. If more Crossriverians belong to the second group of employees, it is a possibility that they do suffer from ASDS. Using secondary data collected from CRS, the paper confirms among other things that 65.7 percent of employees of CRS origin were employed in low skill services areas, and fewer Crossriverians were employed in dynamic sectors/activities like manufacturing, mining, and electricity. The paper notes that dealing with ASDS in Nigeria and elsewhere calls for implementation of a comprehensive social reorientation programme that aims at inculcating the entrepreneurial mindset among youths particularly, and given the powerful impact the media, career counselling programmes should be streamed on the radio, television, and the Internet in a manner that will capture the attention and interest of young people.

Keywords: ASDS, Educational Institutions, Employment, Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Economy, business startups, technical and vocational skills

Social Welfare Analysis of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment in Urban and Rural Nigeria (Published)

This study analyzes the social welfare effect of gender inequality in human capital development (education and employment) across rural and urban Nigeria. Using Nigeria most recent data set on labour force survey by NBS, which captures labour force participation by gender, gender unemployment by educational level and sector, gender schooling ratio, gender population growth rate and economic active participation by gender this study investigated how differently, gender inequality in education and employment affects women across rural and urban regions. To unravel this, we adopted Shorrock and Alkinson Generalized Lorenz approach to welfare dominance and inequality decomposition. We ranked gender inequality on education and employment by rural and urban. The study found that female unemployment by educational level is predominant in the urban sectors compared to the rural sectors. Also gender inequality is higher in labour force participation when compared with education in Nigeria.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Education, Employment, Gender Inequality, Sectoral dominance (Rural and Urban)

Employment and Production of Handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir: An Economic Analysis (Published)

Handicraft has emerged as an important and one of the important contributors to the state’s economy. There are various handicrafts of Jammu and Kashmir which are famous not in domestic level but both in national and international markets. From the good old day handicraft had been the major economic activity of the state. In order to make our handicraft sector on the right track on which more and more production and employment is generated government should have to take care of this sector.

Keywords: Employment, Production, economic activity, handicraft

Positive and Negative Consequences of Balancing Paid Work and Informal Family Care: A Survey in Two Different Sectors (Published)

In The Netherlands about 70% of informal caregivers combine their caregiving activities with paid employment, and thus have to manage the boundaries between work and family roles. Our cross-sectional study examined whether employed informal caregivers differ from non-caring colleagues with respect to negative and positive spillover effects, health and work-related outcomes, use of formal support arrangements and experiences with a supportive work environment. Participants were recruited from a large healthcare and a financial company. Quantitative data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Highly statistically significant, bidirectional, differences were seen with respect to work-family conflict and enrichment, but only in the health care company. In both companies health-related outcomes were scored lower among employees with family caregiving tasks. Work-related outcomes and experiences of formal and informal organizational support and hindrance were evenly distributed. Integration of professional and informal caregiving roles might explain the bidirectional blurring of boundaries between work and family.

Keywords: Employment, Informal Caregiving, Role Integration, Spillover, Work-Family Conflict, Work-Family Enrichment

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being  the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth  The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Farm Products, Gender, Market, Youth

Youth Empowerment as a Necessary Condition for Nation-Building: Nigerian Experience (Published)

The focus of this paper was to show the instrumentality of youth empowerment to nation-building in Nigeria. It observed that the National Youth Service Corps Scheme (NYSC), the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) as agencies of youth empowerment had accelerated the socio-economic development of the country. The NYSC established by Decree 24 of 1973 encouraged members of the Corps to seek employment all over the country, thus promoting occupational mobility. Participants were exposed to the mode of living of the people in different parts of the country with a view to removing prejudices, eliminating ignorance and confirming, at first hand, the many similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups. The NDE ran the National Youth Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme, Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme, Agriculture Sector Employment Programme and Special Public Works Programme. NAPEP had employed, over 1,500,000 youths under the Capacity Acquisition Programme and 1,000,000 unemployed graduates under the Mandatory Acquisition Programme. Providing employment to youths was a prudent way of making them better not bitter and therefore fighting crimes often associated with idle hands. The paper recommended that more Nigerian youths be trained as craftsmen and technicians to make for self-reliance. Indeed, the presence of unemployed youths could pose serious challenges to existing peace in any community

Keywords: Employment, Empowerment, NAPEP Youths, NDE, Nation Building

Graduate Employment Satisfaction in Higher Education in Botswana: A Career Concept Perspective (Published)

This study sought to establish the extent to which graduates of higher education (HE) institutions in Botswana, focusing on a selected higher education institution, were satisfied with their employment, that is, their job designations, job specialisation, and whether they intended to remain in their existing jobs for long. These variables were assessed from a career concept perspective. Relevant literary sources, focusing on aspects of the career concept and career motives, leading to career success hence career satisfaction, were consulted to form the theoretical foundation for the study. The study adopted the quantitative methodology and case study design where the selected HE institution was chosen as a case study for in-depth investigation. The questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. Data gathered from the questionnaire was analysed using statistical software known as Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of the study revealed that the graduates of the selected HE institution were generally unhappy with their employment then and most were contemplating leaving their organisations although they were satisfied with their specialisations.

Keywords: Career Concept, Career Motive, Employment, Expert Concept, Graduate, Linear Concept, Satisfaction, Spiral Concept, Transitory Concept

Economic Impact of Tourism in Jammuand Kashmir (Published)

Jammu and Kashmir State has a tremendous potential to become a major global tourist destination. Importance of tourism in J&K economy is known for decades now and its role in economic development has been an area of great interest from policy perspective. To understand the economic impact of tourism in the J&K state, present paper uses secondary sources of data and tries to examine various parameters of economic development such as tourist inflow, employment generation, State Gross Domestic Product, development of infrastructure and regional development. We found apart from agriculture sector, tourism sector is the most popular source of income and employment generation for the state economy.

Keywords: Employment, Infrastructure, Regional Development., Revenue, Tourism, Tourist Inflow

Employment Problems for Disabled People, a Study of ILO Convention and Domestic Laws (Published)

Employment is considered as a crucial moment in the life of every individual who is capable of working. It takes a special significance when related to the social inclusion and the guaranteeing of economic independence for the disabled people in working age. This article aims to analyze the employment state of the disabled people in Albania as well as to shed light on the difficulties this target group faces in realizing and exercising the right of employment. This is made by analyzing international and the national legislation. Is this completed and above all is it being implemented? We have analyzed the employment situation of the disabled people in our country, the preventing factors which do not allow the law to be applied? Under the social-economic aspect is it better for this target group to be treated with social assistance or direct social governing policies towards a maximum potential integration for a real and guaranteed employment? Sample page: European –American Journal (Politics and Law)

Keywords: Convention, Disabilities, Domestic Laws, Employment

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Gender, Market, Youth

Academic Factors and Graduate Employability in Nigeria (Published)

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of academic factors on graduate employability in Nigeria, a case study of Calabar, Cross River State. To achieve this objective, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. An accidental sampling technique was used in the selection of the samples. A total of 150 respondents were used for the study. The major instrument for data collection was a four-point Likert scale questionnaire titled Academic Factors and Graduate Employability Questionnaire (AFGEQ). It was designed by the researcher with the aid of five research experts to establish its validity and reliability. The split-half method of reliability was used to test the reliability. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and Spearman Brown Prophesy Formula coefficient derived after correlating the outcomes were 0.789 and .882 respectively. Data collected was subjected to statistical test at 0.05 level of significance. The hypotheses were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result of the analyses showed that academic discipline significantly influences graduate employability while academic achievement does not significantly influence graduate employability. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others, that the curriculum should reformed and made universal to provide students of higher institutions with the requirements of contemporary labour market. It was also recommended that there should be a de-emphasis on certificate education in place of skill-oriented training.

Keywords: Academic Factor, Employment, Graduate, Nigeria, Self-employment

Employment and Production of Handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir- An Economic Analysis (Published)

Handicraft has emerged as an important and one of the important contributors to the state’s economy. There are various handicrafts of Jammu and Kashmir which are famous not in domestic level but both in national and international markets. From the good old day handicraft had been the major economic activity of the state. In order to make our handicraft sector on the right track on which more and more production and employment is generated government should have to take care of this sector

Keywords: Employment, Production, economic activity, handicraft

INTERACTION AMONG EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, FDI AND GDP GROWTH IN BANGLADESH- AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS (Published)

This paper has addressed a very important policy question of Bangladesh. This examines the causality among education, employment, FDI and GDP growth in Bangladesh by using time series data from 1980 to 2013. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests show that the time series data is stationary at first difference. Then, the Johansen cointegration analysis indicates that the variables have strong, positive and significant linear relationship between them at .05 level of significance. Granger causality test found the unidirectional causality between employment and literacy rate and also between literacy rate and FDI. Again this empirical Granger causality test found that employment and FDI Granger causes GDP in unidirectional way. Finally, the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) is also used to check the short and long run equilibrium relationships among the variables and the significant results have been found. This study gives the guideline to the researchers and policy makers.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Education, Employment, FDI, GDP growth

INTERACTION AMONG EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, FDI AND GDP GROWTH IN BANGLADESH: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS (Published)

This paper has addressed a very important policy question of Bangladesh. This examines the causality among education, employment, FDI and GDP growth in Bangladesh by using time series data from 1980 to 2013. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests show that the time series data is stationary at first difference. Then, the Johansen cointegration analysis indicates that the variables have strong, positive and significant linear relationship between them at .05 level of significance. Granger causality test found the unidirectional causality between employment and literacy rate and also between literacy rate and FDI. Again this empirical Granger causality test found that employment and FDI Granger causes GDP in unidirectional way. Finally, the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) is also used to check the short and long run equilibrium relationships among the variables and the significant results have been found. This study gives the guideline to the researchers and policy makers.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Education, Employment, FDI, GDP growth

ASSESSING STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING WORK RELATED STRESS AT BARCLAYS BANK LIMITED, TAKORADI (Published)

The study assesses strategies for managing work related stress at Barclays Bank Limited, Takoradi. Employees who are under stress in work may cost a lot of money and time for the organisation. Excessive work-related stress can harm the physical and emotional well-being of the employees. The study design was a survey. It assesses strategies for managing work-related stress at Barclays Bank Limited, Takoradi. Primary data was gathered from thirty (30) employees of the bank. The data for this study was collected using questionnaires. Convenience sampling method was used for the employees. To effectively complete the analysis of the data, descriptive analytical tools like tables and percentages were used to analyse the data. The findings of this study revealed that the banking profession was stressful. It was found that majority of the respondents associated pressure with stress at work. The outcome showed that employees practiced relaxation techniques to cope with, or prevent stress and anxiety. The results showed that employees felt stressed because of long working hours. It is recommended that stress awareness programmes should be instituted to build knowledge and awareness of stress. Awareness sessions should be conducted in a non-threatening environment and shoukd provide employees with current information on the nature, signs, causes and symptoms of stress

Keywords: Employment, Job, Management, Schedule, Strategies., Stressors

IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT ON SERVICE QUALITY- AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY (Published)

Employee empowerment is a very important issues to organizations especially those providing services. This is because the customers and employees are engaged simultaneously in the production of service. The inability of the management to control the service encounter makes the employees responsible for the quality of service delivered to the customers. This practice can directly affect the quality of service. The objective of this study is thus to determine the impact employee empowerment has on service quality in the Nigerian banking industry. The study covered nine branches out of the fifteen branches of First Bank in Kaduna State. This is because the nine branches are within Kaduna State metropolis and so, there was easy access. The sample size consisted of all the staff in the various branches with the exception of contract (in sourcing) staff. The study used primary and secondary data. Questionnaires were distributed to two hundred employees across the branches of First Bank and regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Out of the 200 questionnaires distributed fifteen (15) were not returned. The study found out that employee empowerment has positive and significant impact on service quality. It recommends that First Bank should continue to promote teamwork amongst employees so that every staff irrespective of gender would work towards a common vision of achieving the objectives of the Bank. A more enabling environment for the female employees should also be encouraged so that there will be a balance in enhancing productivity.

Keywords: Employment, Nigerian Banking Industry, Service Quality