Covid-19 Related Stressors and Performance: The Case of Lebanese Employees During the Pandemic (Published)
In the aftermath of Covid-19 and the national lockdown, various firms and companies were obliged to operate remotely from work. This provided several challenges and opportunities to both employees and employers. The reason for carrying this study goes to this new stressful and challenging subject that took over the globe. In this study, the results for the effect of job stress related to the Covid-19 pandemic and employees’ performance in Lebanon will be discussed. The effect of the three main independent stress building factors were measured that includes: perception of safety, job insecurity, and financial loss, which in return reflect on the dependent variable or factor: employees’ performance in Lebanon. The measurement of inferences of these independent job stressors was accomplished by a Google-form survey, with a structured questionnaire. SPSS was the appropriate procedure used to make the inferences of the outcome. The revelation of the analysis depicts that there was no relationship between the perception of safety and the employees’ performance while there was a significance relationship between job insecurity, financial loss, and performance. The study shows and indicates that to reduce the stress and enhance the performance of employees, wherever possible, specifically during a crisis, working operations need to be organized by employers.
Organizational Cynicism and Employee Performance of Logistics Companies in Southwest Nigeria (Published)
Citation: Dimgba Chidinma M., Ikon Micheal A., and Faith Chidi Onwuchekwa (2022) Organizational Cynicism and Employee Performance of Logistics Companies in Southwest Nigeria, European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 18-34,
Abstract: The broad objective is to ascertain the extent of relationship between Organizational Cynicism and Employee Performance of Logistics Companies in South West, Nigeria. The specific objective is to ascertain the extent of relationship between workplace bullying and Employee Turnover. The study was anchored on Social Exchange theory and Conservation of Resources Theory propounded by Stevan Hobfoll in (1989). Sixty Haulage Logistics Companies was selected from Lagos, Oyo and Ogun, the Population of the Study is 4,560, sample size of 380 and Pearson Moment Correlations Co-efficient was used to analyze the data. It was revealed through the findings that there is a significant positive relationship between Workplace Bullying and Employee Turnover since (Cal.r.602 >Crit.r.087). The study concludes that Organizational Cynicism have a significant positive relationship with Employee Performance and the study recommends that, logistics companies should put a control measure in place to checkmate workplace bullying so as to reduce cynicism.
Work Environment and Employee Performance in the Public Service: A Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)
This work examines the effect of work environment on employee performance in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University. It equally aims at ascertaining whether the social environment affect the productivity of workers of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University. In other to properly articulate the work, data was gotten from both the primary and secondary sources of data collection such as questionnaires, interviews, journals, periodicals, textbooks etc. The tables and percentages where used to display the data while the, chi-square was used in its analysis. Taro Yamane’s sample size determination was adopted to arrive at one hundred and fifty (150) as our sample size. Victor Vrooms Valence Expectancy theory was adopted as the theoretical framework of analysis. Based the foregoing, the study revealed that COOU’s working environment had an impact on members as far as the respondents are concerned. By implication, the institution needs to improve its physical working environment so that to influence employees to stay in the office, work comfortable and perform their job. It was recommended among other things that; Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University should have a good program in place for their employees work life balance as this can be a great factor to motivate and retain them. Management should try as much as possible to build a work environment that attracts, retain and motivate its employees so that to help them work comfortable and increase organization productivity; Employers should have in place a good working condition for their employees in order to boost their morale and made them more efficient. Finally, management should find ways and means of communicating their goals and strategies to their employees in order to achieve what the organization is in business for, its mission and vision.
Employee training on customer satisfaction: Mediating Role of Employee Performance and the Moderating role of Job autonomy (Published)
This study focused on proposed hypothetical model to explore the association between employee training and customer satisfaction of retail sector in Pakistan, while observing employee performance in mediating role and job autonomy in moderating role. The study was conducted by cross-sectional survey among employees and customers of selected organizations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, respectively. Sample consists of 224 employees and data collection was done by the distribution of structured questionnaires through convenience sampling technique. In statistical analysis to draw conclusions analytical tools such as reliability, correlation, and regression analysis were used. From results it was observed that there was a positive association between employee training and customer satisfaction. Also, the results of the study supported the highly significant mediating role of employee performance on the association between employee training and customer satisfaction. Similarly the results confirmed the moderating role of job autonomy between employee training and customer satisfaction. So it is well concluded that retail companies should introduce training of employees which will enhance their performance and will help them deliver a better customer service and definitely customers will be satisfied. Similarly if employees are well trained, so they will act and work autonomously which will boost customer satisfaction
Influence of Staff Training and Development on Employee Performance in Selected University Libraries in South-West, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the influence of training and development on employee performance in selected university libraries in South-West, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for this research work. A structured questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection. The total enumeration technique was employed, and out of the total copies of the questionnaires administered, 103 were completed and returned. Frequency distribution and percentages were used for analysis, while the hypotheses were tested using correlation and regression analysis tools of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The result of the study showed a significant correlation between staff training and development and employee performance in university libraries in Nigeria. The result of this research also showed that staff training and development significantly influence the performance of library staff in selected university libraries. The study, therefore, recommends that university libraries management should regularly organize training and developmental programs for their employees. Furthermore, the research suggests that library employees should be encouraged to participate in training organize within and outside their institutions, as this would ensure increased performance/productivity.
The Effects of Human Resource Development, Work Culture, Work Environment on Employee Performance Mediated by Work Commitments: A Study on the City of Baubau Government, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia, (Published)
This research aims to examine the relationship of human resource development to employee performance by considering work culture, work commitment and work environment as a determining factor for improving employee performance. The sample of the study consists of 166 employees in 12 regional work unit in the City of Baubau. Th data were collected by distributing questionnaires followed by conducting in-depth interviews. The research uses descriptive analysis to determine the characteristics of respondents and the description of respondents to the indicators of each research variable. Meanwhile, to examine the pattern of relationships between research variables an inferential analysis tool is used, namely Structural Equation Modeling with the Amos 7 approach.The results of this research indicate that, good leadership can improve employee performance when taking into account the factors that play a role, namely the development of human resource management, work culture, work commitment and work environment in the regional work unit in the City of Baubau. This study also produces findings that to improve employee performance for the better if factors of work culture, work commitment and work environment are considered.
Flexible Time and Employee Performance in Manufacturing Firms in Anambra State of Nigeria (Published)
Manufacturing firms are saddled with the problem of timing in terms of production and producing quality goods which leads to poor organizational performance, low employee performance and low commitment on the job. The broad objective is to ascertain the extent of relationship that exists between flexible timing and employee performance in manufacturing firms in Anambra State. The specific objective is to ascertain the relationship between self- roistering and Employee Retention in manufacturing firms in Anambra State. The work was anchored on Attribution Theory by Heider (1958), Descriptive Survey Research Design was adopted. The Population of the Study is 220 and Pearson Moment Correlations Co-efficient was used to analyze the data. It was revealed through the findings that there is a significant relationship between self -roistering and employee retention (Cal.r.935>Crit.r.195), in the manufacturing firms in Anambra State. The study concludes that flexible timing has a significant positive relationship with Employee Performance and the study recommends that the management of the studied manufacturing firm should imbibe self-roistering as part of the flexible timing procedure; it tends to enhance the employees ‘commitment in their jobs which leads to their retentions in the organization, and it brings about good quality products manufactured.
The study sought to establish the effect of involvement on employee performance in public universities in Uganda. Performance in the study was measured in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, quality and productivity. The target population in focus included: top University administrators teaching and non-teaching staff members, making a total of 2236. This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey research design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods to address the research questions and objectives.. The study used three sampling techniques, that is, purposive, stratified sampling and simple random sampling. The data collection instruments included interview and questionnaires; the method of data analysis and presentation was descriptive and inferential. Findings revealed that involvement contributes to variation in Employees’ performance in public Universities. It is expected that the study will benefit academicians, and managers of institutions of higher learning in Uganda and beyond. It is recommended that universities are better adapting the culture of involvement of employment to enhance employee output and overall growth and sustainable development of Universities to ably compete locally and globally.
Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Performance in Selected Commercial Banks in South East Nigeria (Published)
The seeming lack of support of employees by the organizations studied in form of low career development prospect, poor participatory avenue and low management care necessitated this study whose broad objective was to determine the type of relationship that exists between Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Performance in selected Commercial Banks in South East Nigeria. The study was anchored on Organizational Support Theory (OST) and Social Exchange Theory (SET). Correlation Research Design was employed for the study. The population of the study was 1552 and Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample size formula was adopted to arrive at a sample size of 308. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used for the analysis. The findings indicated that Management Support significantly and positively related with Felt Obligation in the selected Commercial Banks in South East Nigeria. (Cal. r .929 >Crit. r .138). The study concluded that Perceived Organizational Support had a significant positive relationship with employee performance in the selected commercial banks in South East Nigeria. It was recommended that Management of the focused firms should do well to show employees genuine love and support not only as it relates to their jobs but also in the private endeavours of the employees.
Organisational Identification and Employee Performance in Selected Commercial Banks in Delta State (Published)
In the present unpredictable and volatile Nigerian business environment, inadequate prestige, self-esteem and incongruent values of employees in the selected commercial banks in Delta State has made attaining effective performance a major problem. The broad objective of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between organisational identification and employee performance in selected commercial banks in Delta State. The study was anchored on social identity theory. Descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The population of the study was 204 consisting of employees of the selected banks and complete enumeration was used for the sample size Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used in testing the hypothesis. Findings of the study revealed that evaluative Identification (group self-esteem) has a significant positive relationship with Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. The study therefore concluded that organisational identification plays an important role on the level of performance employees put into their work. It was recommended that management of the studied banks should make deliberate policies and put machineries in place to build the sense of prestige, pride and self-esteem of the employees from being members of the organisation as this would elicit extra role behaviour from the employees and the organisation would be better for it.
The Effect of Non-Financial Motivators on Employee Performance: A Case Study of Baringo County Referral Hospital in Kenya (Published)
The research assessed the effects of non-financial motivators on employee performance, taking a case of Baringo County Referral Hospital. The specific objectives were to: document the non-financial motivators used; determine the role of work environment in employee motivation; assess the effect of effective communication on employee productivity, and determine the role of training on employee performance. The research gaps identified were lack of non-financial motivators in the institution to improve employees’ performance. The study was prompted by the frequent strikes in public hospitals in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The sample comprised 50 employees out of the 250 working in different departments within the Hospital. The sample was selected using the Central Limit Theorem. To collect data, questionnaires were used. The collected data was then analysed using study descriptive statistics to with the aid of computer software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). From the findings of the study, there were some non-financial motivators at the hospital, namely communication, training and working environment. Most of the respondents stated that there was inadequate use of non-financial motivators and only a few were of contrary opinion. It was found that the majority of the employees felt there was no free flow of information in the hospital. In conclusion it was found that there is no free flow of information and also there are communication barriers within the institution. Concerning working environment, the health and safety policy is in existence but most of the staff are not aware. The training committee should base their recommendations on training projections and the five day training policy so that it may enhance staff performance. In recommendations the institution should enhance free flow of information. On work environment the employees should sensitized on health and safety policy. The researchers recognized the functionality of training committee. However, they should have a clear criterion of recommending employees for training to ensure equity achieved upon the staff.
The Effect of Competency-Based Training (CBT) On Employee Competency and Performance of Emergency Response Directorate of National Board for Disaster Management (BNPB) (Published)
This research aimed to analyze the effect of competency–based training (CBT) on employee competency and performance of emergency responsible directorate of national board for disaster management (BNPB). This research applied multivariate dependency statistic technique. SEM allowed analyzing one or more independent variables with one or more dependent variables. This research applied census method because the population was relatively small and had fulfilled the requirement in which it employed BNPB as many as 60 employees of emergency response directorate who had received CBT program on training of rapid response for disaster management. Competency-Based Training or CBT had significant effect on the competency. CBT for the employees of emergency response directorate had no significant effect on employee performance. Competency had a significant effect on employee performance.
Individual and socio-cultural differences among team members in breweries in the South East in particular and Nigeria in general constitute a challenge to effective teamwork, thereby giving rise to inconsistencies among team members. It becomes important to ascertain the relationship between harmonization and service delivery in selected breweries in South East, Nigeria. The general objective of the study is to examine team building and employee performance in selected breweries in South East, Nigeria, while the study specifically ascertained the relationship between harmonization and service delivery of the selected breweries in South East, Nigeria. The study used descriptive survey design with a sample size of 262 respondents. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient on SPSS ver.22 was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that when there is harmony among the employees of an organization, there is always cohesion, trust, commitment, and understanding of the team dynamics, thereby improving the service delivery of employees of the selected breweries in South East, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that breweries in South East, Nigeria should employ managers that would be saddled with the responsibility of building harmony through trust among the employees while building teams for effective service delivery; and also ensure that team building should go with policy that would checkmate the excesses of the teams
Effect of Scientific Personnel Selection Practices on Employees’ Performance of Kenya Ports Authority (Published)
The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of scientific personnel selection on the performance of employees at Kenya Ports Authority. The study specifically sought to determine the effect of the three components of scientific personnel selection namely: Cognitive ability, Personnel dimensions and psychometric ability on the performance of employees at Kenya Ports Authority.The study was carried out at Kenya Ports Authority where 144 senior managers represented the units of analysis for this study. Quantitative research design was adopted for this study. Specifically a descriptive survey aimed at a targeted population from a representative sample. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data relevant for the study. The questionnaire used Likert scale to collect the quantitative data. The sampling technique used was stratified where the population was subdivided into sub groups. A pilot study was carried out on 26 respondents. A range of methods were employed to summarize the data including descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Data was analyzed using tables and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, standard deviation, correlation and regression analysis. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze quantitative data..The results of the study revealed that the correlation between cognitive, personality dimensions, psychomotor ability and employee performance was highly significant at (p-value = 0.000). The regression results indicated that the scientific personnel selection practices explained 17% variation in the employee performance. The study recommends that KPA should adhere to scientific personnel selection practices when recruiting and filling up vacant positions.
Conflict Management Approaches: A Tool for Productive Employee Performance in Business Organizations (A Study of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko Plant) (Published)
This paper is a critical analysis of conflict management approaches as a tool for productive performance in business organizations, a survey of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. The study adopted simple empirical survey methods with a view of eliciting relevant data for analytical purpose so as to answer several questions and attain the objectives of the study. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e Strongly agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). The sample size for the study is 269 derived from the population of 825 employee of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. This was determined using Yaro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity determination and Cronbach alpha for reliability determination was applied too. Multiple regression test was adopted for testing two formulated hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that conflict management have positive impacts in enhancing productivity of employees of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. Another finding reveals that strategies and techniques for management of conflict have significantly impacted on the performance of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. The study recommended that the circumstance of conflict occurrence should be X-rayed, evaluated before deciding to adopt a suitable method, strategy and technique for conflict resolution and management. Secondly, the management of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant should ensure that causes and varying forces that may cause conflict in organization are checkmated to ensure organizational success. These causes may include; limited resources, overlapping authority, inadequate treatment, differences in perception, role conflict, leadership styles and diversity differences amongst others.
Effects of Industrial Safety and Health on Employees’ Job Performance in Selected Cement Companies in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the effects of industrial safety and health on employees’ job performance in selected companies which include UNICEM, Dangote Plc. The study revolves around industrial safety/health strategies and productivity, together with relationships among employees, customers and management and how it affects turnover. To this end, a survey research design was adopted and a sample size of 100 staff was randomly selected for the study. The Pearson Moment correlation coefficient was used for the hypotheses tests. The result of the tests revealed that there is strategies and employee job performance. It recommended that employers should ensure adequate industrial safety/health strategies management in order to protect the lives of its employees at work place thereby reducing employee turnover and promoting staff performance
The Moderating Effect of Level of Education on Capital Resource for Increased Employee Performance: A Case of Courier Companies in Kenya (Published)
The concept and perspective of level of education from human capital theory stems from the fact that there is no substitute for knowledge and learning, and that, they need to be relentlessly pursued and focused on by employees. This is according to Rastogi, (2000). Sustaining enterprise competitiveness –is human capital the Answer? He emphasizes on the need for a desire of individuals to invest their skills and expertise in the organization and their position. Many organizations however fail to embrace importance of knowledge, skill and learning as portrayed by high employee turnover as a result of incompetence. This paper analyses the moderating impact of the level of education given dynamic capital resource capabilities on employee performance. Its focus is on Courier companies in Kenya. It is rooted to the Resource based theory, which encourages a shift toward the employee skills and their relative contribution to value creation. A target population of 2800 was considered and a sample size of 339 respondents arrived at using Cochran’s formula. The study was explanatory and used simple random sampling. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypothesis. Level of education was found to moderate the relationship between capital resource capabilities, and employee performance. The study provides new insights into factors influencing employee performance through the moderation of level of education. The paper recommends that courier companies should identify their critical capital resource capabilities putting emphasis on those that enhance employee performance and train employees on computer usage and internet.
The Effect of Physical and Social Capital Resource Capabilities on Employee Performance in Courier Companies In Kenya (Published)
Incorporation of physical resources and social networking in organizations is a successful investment that managers can think of. They are essential in piloting corporate activities and production of goods and services for which the organization’s goal may be based on. The quality of physical resource capabilities lie in its fitness for purpose and its longevity. It relates to the concept and design of a building, and its suitability for the use to which it will be put. When employees work in a secure environment strengthened by the organization’s’ buildings, the tendency to have better performance will be evident. A shared vision embodies the collective goals of the employees. When employees have the same perceptions about how to interact with one another, they can avoid misunderstandings in their communications and have more opportunities to exchange their ideas freely. This paper thus sought to establish the effect of physical and social capital resource capabilities on the performance of Courier Companies in Kenya. The study was based on social capital theory and targeted a population of 2800 where a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. The study used simple random sampling which employed explanatory research design. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Physical capital resource capabilities had the greatest influence while Social capital resource capabilities were found not to be significantly associated with employee performance.
Utilization of Human Capital Resource Capabilities as a Competitive Tool in Organizations for Improved Employee Performance in Courier Companies in Kenya (Published)
Employees are the backbone of the organization and ensures that company policies and programs are implemented effectively. Employee performance is linked with capital resource capabilities. This paper sought to examine utilization of human capital resource capabilities as a competitive tool in organizations for improved employee performance in courier companies in Kenya. For comparison in analysis, other resource capabilities tested included; physical resource, financial resource and social resource. The study involves human capital theory. From a target population of 2800 a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling was used and employed explanatory research design. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that physical capital resource capabilities had the greatest influence on employee performance, financial capital resource capabilities which also had a positive and statistically significant influence and finally the human capital resource capabilities which this paper aimed to examine had a positive relationship but statistically insignificant influence. Social capital resource capabilities were found not to be significantly associated with employee performance. The study recommends that courier companies should identify their critical capital resource capabilities putting emphasis on those that can enhance employee performance and train employees on computer usage and internet. The policy makers such as ministry of communications and information technology should also put emphasis on technological advancements in the provision of courier services.
The Role of Financial Capital Resource Capabilities in Improving Employee Performance in Courrier Companies in Kenya (Published)
Financial capital in organizations is a key form of asset that exists in various sources and characteristics. Financial capital commonly refers to assets needed by a company to provide goods or services, as measured in terms of money value. The most important sources of financial capital are debt and equity. Debt represents credit from a lender, also known as creditor, and is created when a creditor agrees to lend a sum of assets to a debtor (borrower). It is imperative that firms source for financial resources that will enable purchase of tools and other equipment required by employees in discharging their duties. Equity on the other hand is direct investment into an organization. The initial equity is financed by the principal owner and the start-up team, then equity is obtained for their successive growth from high net worth family members, friends called angel market. This paper is an assessment of the role played by financial capital resource capabilities of a firm to improve employee performance. The study used a target population of 2800 from which a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling and employed explanatory research design were also used.. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that financial capital resource capabilities had a great influence on employee performance, thus played the key role in organization’s performance.