Tag Archives: Employability

Extensiveness of Higher Education Development Programme on Enabling Institutional Linkage to Ensure Quality University Graduates in the Northern Zone Tanzania (Published)

Institutional linkages has been a demand for all universities in the world. Higher Education Development Programme (HEDP) was meant to cater for this fundamental purpose. This study therefore aimed at finding out the extensiveness of HEDP on enabling institutional linkages of universities in the Northern Zone Tanzania. The study was anchored to the Value-Added-Theory. Convergent design under the mixed research paradigm lead the study. The target population for the study was 18,601 respondents from eight (8) Universities in the Northern Zone of Tanzania. This comprised of 5,118 final year bachelor degree students, 483 lecturers, 8 DVC-academics, 12,292 alumni and 100 employers. The study sample comprised of 697 respondents from which 511 were final year bachelor degree students, 48 lecturers, 4 DVC academics, 124 alumni and 10 employers. Sampling techniques included stratified random, purposive and automatic inclusion. Data collected through questionnaires, indepth interview guides and document analysis guides. Validity of quantitative data collection instruments was ensured through content and face validity while for qualitative was ensured through explanation of the purpose of study and ensuring equal time for each interview. Internal consistency of Likert type items was estimated through Cronbach Alpha, while the dependability of qualitative items was ensured through triangulation. Quantitative data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics where frequencies, percentages, and means were determined. Qualitative data was analyzed through transcription of texts, generate themes, interpret, discuss and making conclusions. The study found that, HEDP is to some extent known to students and alumni for its purpose of establishing linkages. The study concluded that HEDP has to the lower extent achieved the goal of ensuring institutional linkages. The study recommended that universities should conduct periodic review and reform programmes to cater for the needs of the current demands of 21st century soft skills.

Citation: Fortunatus Michael Mbua,  Victorini Salema & Timothy Mandila (2022) Extensiveness of Higher Education Development Programme on Enabling Institutional Linkage to Ensure Quality University Graduates in the Northern Zone Tanzania, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 11, pp.45-65


Keywords: Employability, Soft Skills, competitive job market, institutional linkages, quality graduates and 21st Century skills

Managing University Education for Employability in Nigeria: The Way Forward (Published)

The study investigates the concerning issue of unemployment among Nigerian graduates in recent years. Youth unemployment has come from the University’s incapacity to meet the needs of these graduates, as well as the promotion of economic, self-reliance, and self-sufficiency. In Nigeria, this has led in a rise in youth unrest. In addition, the purpose of this study is to investigate employability, with a focus on the relationship between education and employability, in order to evaluate whether employability can be improved through university education. The article goes on to highlight some employability skills and propose ways for universities to re-engineer themselves in order to obtain these capabilities for the benefit of our students and society as a whole.

Citation: Ossai  A.G. and Okokoyo, I. E (2022)  Managing University Education for Employability in Nigeria: The Way Forward, British Journal of Education, Vol.10., Issue 6, pp. 37-45

Keywords: Employability, Nigeria, University, graduates

Unemployability of the Nigerian Graduate: The Effect of Tertiary Institutions-Industry Disconnect (Published)

The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of tertiary institutions-industry disconnect in Nigeria. To achieve this, primary data was collated using a questionnaire from an online survey from 550 participants. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were employed to estimate the data. The estimates indicates that practical skills was positive but insignificant, while industrial training and workshop were both positive and significant in aligning the curriculum content with the workplace needs of employers. The logit estimates indicate that grade point average and type of qualification were negative and bear insignificant effect on educational content and workplace readiness. The estimates further showed that ICT skills and additional certification have a positive and significant effect on educational content and workplace readiness. The estimates suggest that there is a 54% chance that employment matches the degree acquired. The estimates also indicate that the coefficient of practical skills is negative and insignificant, while industrial work experience is an eligible link between tertiary institutions and industry. The results suggest that ICT and additional certificates increase employability by 32%-40% and 15.5%-27.9% respectively. Work experience drivers employability by 6.4%. The study concludes that practical skills, industrial training/workshop, and additional certificates as significant factors that can enhance the link between institutions of learning, the demands of the labour market, and graduate employability in Nigeria. Among others, the study recommends the need to integrate industry needs into the educational curricula. The study also recommends the need to ensure collaboration between industry and tertiary institutions. Again, it suggests the need for graduates to acquire professional certificates to enhance their chances of employment.


Keywords: Curriculum, Employability, practical skills, unemployability, workplace readiness

Perceptions of Tamale Technical University Hospitality and Tourism Lecturers on Graduates Employability (Published)

Hospitality and Tourism (HT) higher education is a recent occurrence in Ghana. Issues of disparity in instruction and curriculum contents create problems for graduate’s employability. The industry demands graduates with employable skills and competencies, which lacks hospitality and tourism management students of higher learning put continuous pressure on educators. And can be corrected through higher education curriculum design. The study examines lecturers’ insights regarding students’ potential employability in HT sectors concerning course content, structure, relevance, adequacy and quality of lectures delivered. The results revealed that lecturers’ perceptions of skills and competencies developed by the graduate programme in Hospitality and tourism management (HTM) is inadequate and lacks employable skills. Lack of knowledge and understanding amongst students and lecturers of the hospitality and Tourism industry required skills such as generic hospitality required skills (interpersonal skills, communication skills, work ethics, professionalism, and emotional intelligence). The study adopted a qualitative approach. An in-depth semi-structured interview involving all 40 lecturers of the Department of Hospitality and Tourism of Tamale Technical University The study recommends lecturers and students having industry experience to be abreast with the industry’s needs for graduate’s employability.

Keywords: Competencies, Employability, Skills, hospitality and tourism

The Gap between Employers and Unemployed, Challenges for Employability in Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica (Published)

The purpose of this research is to analyze the challenges for employability in Guanacaste through the discussion of variables that influence job offers and the conditions of job seekers, with a focus on the relevance of employment for economic development of the country and the relationship of higher education with obtaining employment. The methodology includes a descriptive research, with a quantitative approach, which studies guanacastecans in unemployment, applying a survey to a sample of 76 university students. The results show that people feel prepared and with the necessary competences for employment, but perceive little support from local governments, institutions and even the universities to open employment opportunities. The experience barrier is relevant, looked by employers; among the competences that increase the possibilities of employment are the soft skills, English language management, as well as the updating in technological tools. Considering conclusions, communication between universities, local governments and other institutions should improve with business sectors, to generate a clear picture and increase employment options. Together with efforts such as more job fairs and intermediation offices, the unemployed will have a link to find employment and employers can have a clear profile of the people who seek a job. In short, the challenges are diverse and requires efforts from various parties, from the unemployed who must develop adequate skills, to employers who value human talent in Guanacaste.

Keywords: Economic Development, Education, Employability, Skills, Unemployment

4th Industrial Revolution: The Challenge of Changing Human Resources Skills (Published)

This paper comes to examine the intense reflection that arises around the issue of the fourth industrial revolution and the subsequent rapid changes. Changes that affect all areas of human existence, especially labour, drastically. Already from the beginning of the 21st century, international organizations (UN, UNESCO, OECD) are also keen to increase employability and develop relevant skills that can protect it.

Keywords: 4rth Industrial Revolution, Changes, Employability, Skills

Contemporary Working Dilemmas and European Policies for Transformation (Published)

The contemporary societal characteristics, the rapid development of technology, the intense demographic changes, the high and persistent unemployment rates have led to major changes in the workplace. More and more professional groups are becoming vulnerable and they need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labor market. In such a context, the training and education of potential professionals becomes a matter of major importance and a reference point for the policies of international organizations. The European Commission has drafted texts which aim to increase the employability of individuals. One recent text is that of “A New Skills Agenda for Europe”, which was adopted by the Commission on 10 June 2016. Following the quantitative methodology and in particular the content analysis of the text we examine the way it can be achieved. The categories used for the analysis of the text come from the transformative learning theory of Mezirow and in particular the ten stages of stochastic processing. The results of this study show that the aim of this text seems to be the learning transformation of employees in order to become more employable.

Keywords: Dilemma, Employability, European Policies, Skills, Transformative Learning

Skills and Sentimental Intelligence: A New Dimension in Employability (Published)

In a dynamic, multidimensional and more operational environment, the effectiveness of human resources is a matter of major importance, leading most organizations and enterprises to pursue total quality in all their activities (Hofstede, 1990). The quality can be ensured through the comprehensive improvement of employee skills, international alliances, the introduction and support of innovations, the lifelong education and training of human resources. International organizations, in a context of global co-operation and synergy, are called upon to play an important role in this direction, as they have both the appropriate experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To that end, important official texts have been drawn up, of which a constant point of reference is the need to acquire proper and appropriate skills. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made mainly to the categories of interpersonal relations management and self-management. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers to develop communication, facilitate change, enhance the development of others, teamwork, co-operation and adaptation to continuously changing environments.

Keywords: Employability, European Union., Sentimental Intelligence, Skills

Skills: A Pathway to Employability and Prosperity. European Commission Policies (Published)

The contemporary societal characteristics, the rapid technological developments, the increase in age limits, the strong demographic changes, the high rates of unemployment have led to major changes in the workplace. There is a strong demand for national and international policies, which aim at the development of employability and prosperity of citizens. In a context of global co-operation and coalition, international organizations, such as the United Nations Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU) Institutions, are called upon to play an important role in the development of prosperity, social cohesion and the economy of the countries, given that they have both the appropriate experience and the extensive diplomatic networks. In such a context, a great number of significant official texts have been drafted. Texts which provide policy guidance to member states in order to achieve growth and prosperity. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate the way employability can be protected and maintained. The analysis shows that a basic dimension of employability concerns the improvement and development of a skillset which people need to obtain in order to get and keep employed. These skills are planned and supported by corresponding policies and they are also differentiated according to target populations.

Keywords: Employability, Prosperity, Skills, policies

Globalizing Business Education Curriculum Experiences in Nigeria Higher Education for Enhanced Students’ Employability (Published)

The growing challenges of globalisation, internationalization and labour market are pushing universities to rethink their curriculum learning experiences in developing economies. Hence the study seeks ways to strengthen the business education curriculum learning experiences in order to improve creativity and innovative capacities of students in knowledge – based economy. The survey study used 120 business educators involve in curriculum planning and design from four selected universities in the Niger Delta States. Internal consistency of the measured scale was determined by using split-half method correlated with coefficient alpha to obtain 0.75. Quantitative data analysed using descriptive statistics revealed the need to expose the students to multi-cultural environments, critical and analytical perspectives of global economic opportunities, and entrepreneurial skills that can help them function actively in domestic and international business environments. In conclusion, the paper charged stakeholders to incorporate into the business education programs global practices to enrich students’ employability status.

Keywords: Curriculum Experiences, Employability, Globalisation, Internationalization

Understanding Graduate Employability: A Case of a Selected Higher Education Institution in Botswana (Published)

The issue of graduate employment has generated a lot of debate and has become a phenomenal theme of discourse across professional gatherings, political rallies, media, commentary reviews, national economic debates and social networks. In the context of Botswana, studies also show that the country is currently suffering from the twin challenges of shrinking economy and unemployment with the current national unemployment being pegged at 18% and rising while youth unemployment alone is at 34%. It is against this background that this study has been carried out to examine the employment status of graduates at a selected higher education institution in Botswana. A quantitative approach that employed a structured questionnaire was used in the study to collect data from a sample of 250 graduates who graduated between 2007 and 2014. Convenience sampling strategy was used to select the sample of respondents. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 21. Results of the study showed that 65.3% of the students who graduated between 2007 and 2014 at the selected higher education institution are employed. The study further showed that graduates felt that some of the reasons for delayed employment had nothing to do with skills mismatch, experience or competition in the market but as a result of other issues. It was also shown in the study that the main method of seeking for employment was through the use of curriculum vitae (CVs)

Keywords: Employability, Graduate, Hard Skills, Soft Skills, Unemployment


The world owing to ICT has taken a different dimension; activities are highly sophisticated and need sophisticated skills and skilled men to handle them. Men who are unskilled and depend on archaic and old fashion way of doing things and carrying out activities are obsolete, out of job or placed at the lower cadre of their profession, an age where mechanization and high level technology is the order of the day. The jetty speed, at which the world moves, requires jetty effort and should be criteria for choice of profession and desired skill to acquire and the level at which it is acquired. The paper therefore put it this way that all skills are skills, but some skills attract more employability than others as a result of the level of excellence attained in them. It’s on this note that the paper on “Skills for Excellence and Employability in the Modern World” will look into the following areas: Characteristics of Excellence, Concept of Employability vis-a-viz the Modern World, Concept of Skills for Excellence vis-a-vix Employed/Employability, Skills for Excellence in the Modern World, conclusion and recommendation.

Keywords: Employability, Excellence, Modern World, Skills


University graduate employability rests on university personnel to enhance their employability skills and attitude in Technical and Vocational Education (TVE). University management in Nigeria seems to undermine the right university academic staff in skills and qualities that could contribute to graduate employability in global marketplace. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating staff-personnel management towards technical and vocational education and its implications for graduate employability in Cross River State, Nigeria. It was designed to provide a baseline information for policy-management on education in university knowledge production towards increased productive output. This descriptive survey design study has two hypotheses formulated to guide the study while the related literatures were reviewed. Sample size of 400 university academic staff was drawn from a population of 2,239 members of academic staff from the two universities studied using stratified random sampling technique. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. Data was statistically analyzed using population t-test and independent t-test statistics. Results revealed that staff-personnel management towards TVE was not significantly low and also, not significantly dependent on ownership of the university. It was recommended among others that university management should establish a better work relations between TVE institutions and the labour market for positive inputs and better students’ orientation to the world of work.

Keywords: Employability, Technical, University, Vocational, staff-personnel


The issue of graduate unemployment has been in the front burner of discourse in the nation in recent years with the churning out of graduate’s year in, year out clogging further the labour market. Even with the large number of unemployed graduates in the country, employers of labour still find it difficult to fill the existing few vacancies that crop up from time to time because these graduates are often found unemployable. They lack certain requisite skills for sustainable employment. These skills create a gap in their knowledge which should have been embedded in the curriculum used in the process of training them. From the literature reviewed, the paper looked into what the employers actually want, recognising the gaps in the required skills and how these can be incorporated into the curriculum the students are exposed to before they graduate. This curriculum should expose them to skills apart from technical and professional skills that will make them employable or make them self-employed, reducing greatly the number of unemployed people in the nation. This will stem the tide of rising social menace in the country often created by joblessness, which if not addressed can threaten the stability of the nation

Keywords: Employability, Employability Skills, Entrepreneurship, Skills-Gap, Unemployment