Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Imo State Public Sector: An Empirical Approach (Published)
The focus of this paper is on Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in the Imo State Public Sector. The study used survey approach and covered a population of 305 senior staff of eight selected public sector organizations in Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researchers used purposive sampling technique to select 221 members of staff, however, only 198 copies of the survey tool was accurately filled and returned which yielded 89.59% return rate. The data used was generated from both primary and secondary sources but a five point likert scale survey tool titled Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms Questionnaire (EI&ICRMQ) was the major instrument for data collection. The statistical tool used for data analysis is the one-way ANOVA test using the 23.0 version of SPSS. The study found that variations in the results obtained showed that emotional intelligence effect on negotiation is more significant as it posted the least output (0.000). This is closely followed by mediation that posted an output of (0.006). The result however showed that in arbitration, emotional intelligence plays little or no role as it posted an output (0.075) that is higher than the level of significance (0.05). The study concluded that emotional intelligence is key to conflict resolution especially when the conflicting parties opt for negotiation as a mechanism. Sequel to the findings and conclusion above, the study recommended that to enhance management-labour relations, conflicting parties should ensure that only representatives with high emotional intelligence quotient are sent when adopting negotiation as a conflict resolution mechanism. Training representatives of conflicting parties to imbibe and exhibit emotional intelligence can enhance the success rate of mediation as a conflict resolution mechanism and that conflicting parties adopting arbitration as a conflict resolution mechanism should focus on gathering needful data for evidence and avoid being emotionally sentimental
Social Networking and Participation as Predictors of Teachers Emotional Intelligence in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated social networking and participation as predictors of teachers’ emotional intelligence in public secondary schools in Rivers State. Two objectives, two research questions as well as two hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. The design for the study was correlational design. The population of the study comprised all the 16,743 public secondary school teachers in Rivers State out of which 376 teachers were sampled for the study through multi-stage sampling technique. Two questionnaires which were a 35-tem questionnaire titled “Social Capital Investment Scale” (SCIS) as well as 40-item questionnaire titled Emotional Intelligence Scale” (EIS) were the instruments used for the collection of data for the study. The questionnaires were validated by three experts in the area of Measurement and Evaluation, Department of Psychology, Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. However, for the reliability, Cronbach Alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaires with reliability co-efficients of 0.76 and 0.83 for the sections of the independent variable and 0.96 for the dependent variable. The research questions were answered using Pearson Product Moment Correlation while the hypotheses were tested using z-ratio at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive relationship between social networking and teacher’s emotional intelligence. Similarly, a positive relationship exists between social participation and teachers’ emotional intelligence in public secondary schools in Rivers State. It was recommended that school administrators should endeavor to organize social activities among teachers, parents and students as often as possible to encourage teachers’ participation and freedom of association should be promoted in order to strengthen social networking in these schools.
The Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Teachers’ Perception of Headmaster’s Interpersonal Communication, and Compensation on Affective Commitments of Teachers at Kindergartens (Published)
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of emotional intelligence, teachers’ perceptions of interpersonal communication of headmaster, and compensation for the affective commitment of teachers at Kindergarten Medan Perjuangan. This study uses Qualitative Research Methods and analysis technique of relationships between variables is a form of path analysis. Population in research are 140 kindergarten teachers in District of Medan Perjuangan, the sample is 103. The results of this study are 1. Emotional Intelligence has a direct positive effect on Compensation in Kindergarten in Medan Perjuangan District 2. Teacher’s Perception of Interpersonal Communication Principals directly influence positive for Compensation at kindergartens Medan Perjuangan District 3. Emotional Intelligence has a positive direct effect on teacher’s affective commitment at Kindergarten, Medan Perjuangan District 4. Teacher’s Perception of Principal Interpersonal Communication has a direct positive effect on affective commitment of teachers in at Kindergartens, Medan Perjuangan District. 5. Compensation has a direct positive effect on teacher’s affective commitment at Kindergartens Medan Perjuangan District.
The Relationship between the Mental Health and the Emotional and Social Intelligence among Talented Students in Ajlun Schools (Published)
This study aimed to unveil the relationship between the mental health and the emotional social intelligence among the talented students from schools at Ajloun city. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the mental health test, which was prepared depending on Maslow theory in addition to the emotional intelligence test, depending on Bar-on theory of emotional intelligence. To ensure the validity and reliability of the study, the sample consisted of 100 talented students who were randomly selected from talented schools. The researcher came up with the findings using up the arithmetic averages, standard deviations, the multi variance analysis and correlation coefficient. The study showed that the talented students have high degrees at the mental health scale, the social intelligence and its dimensions, the emotional intelligence and its dimensions, the results also assured that there was a positive correlation between the degrees at the mental health scale, the social intelligence and its dimensions, and the emotional intelligence and its dimensions. These results were discussed in the light of the theoretical framework and previous studies, the study also concluded some recommendations.
Skills and Emotional Intelligence: Study and Investigation of the International Organization of the OECD (Published)
Emotional Intelligence is directly linked to the professional development of teachers and the existence of positive results in the field of education. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through qualitative content analysis, whether the skills associated with emotional intelligence are identified in the political texts of international organizations and in particular in that of the OECD. According to the survey results, emotional intelligence skills related to self-awareness, self-regulation, social awareness and interpersonal relationships management are present. For a better understanding of the issue, it would be helpful to explore these skills in other texts of international organizations, with a view to comparing and enriching relevant databases.
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Management Training Programs in Reducing Peer Victimization among Nigerian Adolescents: Interaction Effects of Locus of Control and Gender (Published)
Peer victimization among adolescents especially the school-going adolescents is a growing concern in Nigeria. Initiatives by policy-makers, educationists and school authorities, among others have not yielded the desired results as youth involvement in organized armed crime has been on the increase. This study investigated the effect of self-management and emotional intelligence training programs in reducing peer victimization among Nigerian adolescents. A quasi experimental pretest, post-test, control group research design of 3x2x2 factorial matrix type was used for this study while gender (male and female) and locus of control (internal and external) used as moderating variables. The study participants were one hundred and eighty (180) Senior Secondary 2 students selected from 3 coeducational secondary schools in Remo educational block of Ogun State, Nigeria. One standardized instrument was used in collecting data while analysis of covariance was used to analyze the generated data. Results show that self-management and emotional intelligence training programs were effective in reducing peer victimization but self-management was found to be more effective. The study also revealed that only locus of control of participants combined to interact with the treatment in reducing peer victimization among the participants. Results showed that participants with internal locos of control benefit more from self-management and emotional intelligence training. It was concluded that participants’ peer relationship skills improved significantly as a result of the treatment. The findings have effectively demonstrated that the treatment packages could be used as veritable tools in equipping adolescents with necessary skills that can be used to expedite some kinds of cognitive processes in our youths such as decision-making, problem-solving, self-control, and therefore bringing about peaceful co-existence among the people.
Considering Primal Teacher Leadership through Quadrant Intelligent (Qi) Model for Teacher Education Content Validity in Ghana (Published)
Using the convenient sampling technique, 250 teachers from the GES (N=218) were used to assess Qi levels. The findings showed significant differences in Ideal Qi and Actual Qi scores, but showed no significant variations among groups [F(1, 218)=1.517, p=.219]. The significant difference was found among the intercept of gender and teaching experiences [F(1, 75)= .596, p= .957)] therefore the alternative hypothesis rejected. Recommendations include the adoption of Qi model by the GES/ Teacher Education Division in Pre-service and In-service training of teachers. Teacher performance assessment should include the assessment of Qi levels and should lead to certification and partly based on evidence of such C21st multiple intelligence. Again, Qi model should be given serious consideration in policy decisions and scholarship. The study contributes to a new paradigm in skills set for teacher education and professional development. These skills set includes but not limited to social, emotional, strategic, and entrepreneurial intelligences.
Influences of Emotional Intelligence and Self-Regulation on Attitude towards Unethical Work Behaviour among Academic Staff of Selected Tertiary Institutions in Nasarawa State (Published)
As custodian of knowledge and agents of change, the academics has a responsibility to demonstrate ethical behavior, maintain a professional working environment and provide services with a benevolent and caring attitude. In recent time, there has been an upsurge in the rate of unethical work behavior among academic staff which is becoming alarming. Despite all that is required of them with regard to ethics and discipline, a critical observation of the conduct of some academic staff in Nigeria has revealed a departure from this norm. Therefore, the study set out to examine the roles of emotional intelligence and self-regulation on attitude towards unethical work behavior among academic staff of Nigerian tertiary institutions. This study is an ex-post facto survey, with attitudes towards unethical behavior as a dependent variable and emotional intelligence and self-regulation as major independent variables. The study sample comprised two hundred and fifty members of academic staff randomly selected from the three selected tertiary institutions in Nasarawa State. The instrument of data collection for this study is questionnaire and were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study revealed that emotional intelligence, self-regulation, age, gender and educational qualification contribute significantly to variance in attitude towards unethical work behavior. Recommendation includes that proper orientation and refresher workshop should be enhanced to include value analysis, with regard to ethical principles that may be unclear to academic staff. The analysis should include basic explanations of professional ethics.
The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labour Market, Social, Political and Community Life. Adults need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with the right skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labour market. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made to the categories of interpersonal relations management, self-management, self –awareness and self-confidence. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers of adult education to help learners develop communication, cooperation and tolerance, face difficulties, improve this lives, connect emotionally with others, join in community, sustain social connections.
The Saudi Arabian Educational system shared the philosophical principles, in its foundation, which concentrated on the achievement of goals, thereby taking up authoritative styles of leadership. However, organisations are beginning to be more liberal in today’s environment than in the 1940s and 1950s, and appealing to emotional intelligence as a tool and skill is needed for effective leadership. In the Saudi Arabian case, such developments are characterised by changes such as that of the educational supervisor having the role redefined to that of a director. This review tracks several parts; the first section helps western reader to understand the subtleties, complexities and intricacies of the Saudi Arabia education system and its approach to leadership system of education, history, culture and political contribution. This can lead to the larger extent understand if Emotional Intelligence is a provocation for better leadership of Saudi Arabian education sector or not. The second part is the growth of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the education system, and evaluates the impact of emotional intelligence as a necessary skill in leadership
Predicting Occupational Stress from Emotional and Social Intelligence of Civil Servants in Rivers State (Published)
The study focused on predicting occupational stress of civil servants form their emotional and social intelligence in Rivers State. The study adopted correlational design. A total of 600 civil servants were drawn through proportionate stratified sampling technique. Three instruments, Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), Social Intelligence Scale (SIS) and Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) which were validated and had reliability coefficients of 0.827 for EIS, 0.849 for SIS and 0.953 for OSI respectively. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Relevant data gathered were analyzed with multiple regression analysis as statistical tool. The result of the study showed that the combination of emotional intelligence dimensions and social intelligence components are significant predictors of the occupational stress of both female and male civil servants and the predictive strengths accounted for 81.9% and 91.6% respectively for the variance in the occupational stress. Based on the findings, it is recommended that since it has been established that both emotional intelligence and its dimensions as well as social intelligence and its components could predict the occupational stress of civil servants, efforts should be made by individual researchers and Government sponsored researchers to further research on whether high or low emotional and social intelligences could increase or decrease occupational stress among civil servants.
The Relative Contribution of the Dimensions of Emotional and Social Intelligence in Predicting the Occupational Stress of Female and Male Civil Servants in Rivers State (Published)
The study examined the relative contributions of the dimensions of emotional and social intelligence in predicting the occupational stress of female and male civil servants in Rivers State. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested. Correlational design was used to gather data from 600 civil servants drawn through proportionate stratified sampling technique. Three instruments, Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), Social Intelligence Scale (SIS) and Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) which were validated and had reliability coefficients of 0.827 for EIS, 0.849 for SIS and 0.953 for OSI respectively were the data gathering devices. Multiple regression analysis served as the statistical tool. The results of the study showed that the dimensions of emotional intelligence when considered separately, significantly predicts the occupational stress of both female and male civil servants. In the same vein, the components of social intelligence (social information processing, social skills and social awareness) when considered separately, significantly predicts the occupational stress of both female and male civil servants. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that gender stereotyping should be avoided in our work places. Since gender (female and male) do not mediate the occupational stress of civil servants.
Emotional and Social Intelligence as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Civil Servants in Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated emotional and social intelligence as predictors of occupational stress of civil servants in Rivers State. The study adopted correlational design. A total of 600 civil servants were drawn through proportionate stratified sampling technique. Three instruments, Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), Social Intelligence Scale (SIS) and Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) which were validated and had reliability coefficients of 0.827 for EIS, 0.849 for SIS and 0.953 for OSI respectively. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Relevant data gathered were analyzed with multiple regression analysis as statistical tool. The result of the study showed that relationship management dimension of emotional intelligence is a significant predictor of the occupational stress of civil servants while emotional self awareness, emotional self management, and emotional social awareness dimensions are not. In addition, relationship management dimension of emotional intelligence is the strongest predictor. Furthermore, the components of social intelligence such as social skills and social awareness are significant predictors of the occupational stress of civil servants, while social information processing is not significant predictor. Social skills component of social intelligence is the strongest predictor. The finding also showed that the dimensions of emotional intelligence and the components of social intelligence when considered collectively, significantly predict the occupational stress of civil servants and the combined prediction could account for up to 74.9% of the variance in the occupational stress of civil servants. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that since it has been established that both emotional intelligence and its dimensions as well as social intelligence and its components could predict the occupational stress of civil servants, efforts should be made by employers of civil servants for training to enable them acquire the competencies inherent in emotional and social intelligences. This is sequel to the fact that these skills or competencies are acquirable and have been found to reduce stress among workers as reported in literature.
Components of Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Teachers in Ughelli-North Local Government Area of Delta State (Published)
This study investigated emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as correlates of job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Ughelli-North Local Government Area of Delta state. A sample size of 400 respondents were used. The study used simple random sampling to select the schools and stratified proportional sampling to draw the sample. Six research questions and six null hypotheses were used. The design for the study was correlational design. The instruments used were Emotional Intelligence Scale (EMIS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Job Satisfaction Scales (JSS) for data collection. The reliability of the instruments (EMIS, GSES and JSS) were also determined using cronbach alpha method of internal consistency and the coefficients obtained were 0.814 for Emotional Intelligence Scale, 0.779 for Job Satisfaction Scale. Linear and multiple regressions were used to answer the research questions, while t-test and one way ANOVA associated with regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Self-Awareness of Emotional Intelligence significantly relates to Job Satisfaction among secondary school Teachers in Ughelli-North Local Government Area of Delta State. Some of the recommendations of the study are: School administrators, should provide a conducive working environment and appreciate teachers for a job well done. School Psychologists and counselors should organize seminars, workshops and training to educate teachers on emotional intelligence and how to develop high self-efficacy. Teachers should also read material on emotional intelligence. The implications of the result and suggestions for further studies were made
The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Classroom Management of STE Science Teachers in Pangasinan (Published)
This study aimed to determine the emotional intelligence (EI) and classroom management approach of the STE science teachers in Pangasinan and the relation of the two variables. This study used descriptive- correlational, using a questionnaire. Total enumeration was utilized with 63 STE science teachers as respondents. Results revealed that EI of the STE science teachers has WM= 119.0 and SD= 13.39, further for the distribution of EI 60.3% has an average EI, 34.9% has above average EI and 4.8% has below average EI with SD= 0.56. Their classroom management approach, 69.8% employ student-centered approach while 30.2% of them use teacher-centered approach with SD= 0.46. Point bi-serial score yielded (rpb= 0.10, p= 0.45). There is no significant relationship between the two variables. Conclusions include: great majority of STE science teachers are performing fairly and utilizing student-centered approach and their classroom management approach is not affected by their EI and vice versa.
Reflective Counselling Technique and Emotional Intelligence Training in Managing Expressed Performance-Anxiety of Trainee Counsellors in South-South Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated effects of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training in enhancing counselling efficacy of undergraduate counselling practicum trainees in South-East Nigeria. The study adopted pre-test-post-test, control group quasi-experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. Simple random sampling technique was used to select ninety (90) Guidance and Counselling practicum undergraduates from three tertiary institutions in South-East Nigeria. The participants were randomly assigned to groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training. One instrument was used: The Counsellor Activity Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES) (α= 0.97). Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance. There was a significant main effect of treatment on counselling efficacy scores of undergraduate counselling practicum trainees F(2,58)=55.140, P<0.05. Also, there was significant main effect of age on counselling efficacy scores of undergraduate counselling practicum trainees exposed to treatments (F (1,77) = 3.651, P < .05). However, there was no significant main effect of gender on counselling efficacy scores of undergraduate counselling practicum trainees exposed to treatment (F(1,77) = 0.741, P > .05). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training were effective in enhancing counselling efficacy of undergraduate counselling practicum trainees. Undergraduate counselling practicum trainees should be exposed to psychological intervention programmes such as emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training that would help enhance their counselling efficacy competence and capability to effectively dispense their professional service to humanity.
Effects of Gender on Emotional Intelligence and Professional Development In Secondary School Teachers (Published)
The study was focused to determine the effect of gender on emotional intelligence and professional development in male and female secondary school teachers. The objectives of the study were, i) Finding the psychometric properties of the scales used in the study. ii) Comparing male and female secondary school teachers on the variable of emotional intelligence iii) Comparing male and female secondary school teachers on the variable of professional development. The research study was co-relational and comparative study with survey type. The sample consisted of 200 secondary school teachers (100 male and 100 female teachers). The questionnaires were based on five point Likert Scale. Once the data was selected, it was presented and tabulated. The data was analyzed using statistical tools i.e. percentages, mean scores, standard deviations, correlation and t-test scores. The item total correlation and inter-scale correlation coefficients suggested that both scales and their sub-scales are also strongly and significantly correlated to each other at 0.01 levels of significance. Some major findings of the research study indicated that female secondary school teachers were more emotionally intelligent and professionally developed than male secondary school teachers. Both variables emotional intelligence and professional development seemed to correlate with gender significantly at 0.01 levels. High mean scores on female secondary school teachers indicated high level of emotional intelligence and professional development and low mean scores on male secondary school teachers indicated low level of emotional intelligence and professional development as compared to females.
Keywords: Educational Management, Educational Planning and Leadership, Educational Psychology, Emotional Intelligence, Human Resource Management, Professional Development, Secondary Schools Teachers, Teacher Education, Teaching Strategies
Effects of Collaborative Learning and Emotional Intelligence Techniques in Enhancing Managerial Accounting Competence among Accounting Undergraduates in South-East Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated effects of collaborative learning and emotional intelligence techniques in enhancing managerial accounting competence among accounting undergraduates in south-east Nigeria. The study adopted pre-test-post-test, control group quasi-experimental design with a 3×2 factorial matrix design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) Accounting undergraduates from three tertiary institutions in South-East Nigeria. The participants were randomly assigned to groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of collaborative learning techniques and emotional intelligence training. Self-constructed instrument was used and three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance and t-test. There was significant treatment effects in enhancing managerial accounting competence among undergraduates in the experimental and control groups (F(3,116) = 3.055, P < .05). The Pair Wise Comparison of the Adjusted Y=Means on the Treatment Effects revealed that the control group had the lowest adjusted post-test mean score g ( =69.03), followed by emotional intelligence group ( =91.79) and collaborative learning technique ( =93.05). The result of the study also showed that there was no significant difference in the treatment effect experienced among participants between male and female undergraduates exposed to treatment in collaborative learning technique group. Furthermore, the study revealed that there was no significant difference in the treatment effect experienced among participants between male and female undergraduates exposed to treatment in emotional intelligence training group. School authorities school give students good orientation on the need to seek professional counselling support service to enable them adjust to the reality of their academic demands and real life situation(s).
THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN GHANA: THE MEDIATION ROLE OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING, SERVICE QUALITY, CUSTOMER SATISFACTION (Published)
This study examines the effect of emotional intelligence on financial performance of commercial banks in Ghana from the perspective of the mediation role of relationship marketing, service quality and customer satisfaction. It goes further to indicate the relative impacts of these mediating variables on financial performance. A complete picture of the monetary effects of investing in the enhancement of employees’ emotional intelligence is hence the core of this paper. The study is a descriptive quantitative study in which a sample of 220 each of service providers and customers in 20 commercial banks in Ghana are used. Pearson’s correlation test, partial correlation test and ordinary least squares regression analysis were used to analyse data. According to findings, emotional intelligence positively relates to relationship marketing (r = .804, p = .000), service quality (r = .601, p = .000), customer satisfaction (r = .426, p = .000) and financial performance (r = .734, p = .000). Emotional intelligence also significantly predicts relationship marketing, service quality, customer satisfaction and financial performance by contributing 64.7%, 63.2%, 23.2% and 32% of the variance respectively. It is made evident that relationship marketing provides the most dominant mediation in the relationship between emotional intelligence and financial performance in the face of service quality and customer satisfaction. Commercial banks are therefore encouraged to deploy resources towards equipping their service providers with emotional intelligence
THE EFFECT OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING ON SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE HOSPITALITY SECTOR IN GHANA: THE MODERATING ROLE OF SERVICE PROVIDERS’ EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (Published)
This study assesses the effect of relationship marketing on service quality and customer satisfaction from the perspective of the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the hospitality sector in Ghana. A descriptive quantitative research technique is employed. A random sample of 384 each of customers and customer service attendants of hotels, leisure centres, resorts and five-star restaurants in Accra are used as the source of data. According to findings, emotional intelligence makes a strong positive effect on relationship marketing at 5% significance level, r (288) = .785, p = .000. Though relationship marketing makes a strong positive effect on service quality (r = .712, p < .05) and customer satisfaction (r = .318, p < .05), these effects degenerate into negative ones when the effect of emotional intelligence on relationship marketing is controlled for. It is therefore recommended that firms in the hospitality sector give priority to equipping their customer service attendants with emotional intelligence to maximise service quality and customer satisfaction