Rural Development Processes and Emerging Challenges in Nigeria (Published)
The central aim of this paper is to highlight the rural development processes in Nigeria and identify the emerging challenges that impede sustainable rural development in the country. In achieving its aim, the paper clarified the concept of development and rural development as postulated by various scholars. It examines the modernization and dependency theoretical underpinning of the concepts. The study analyses secondary and empirical sources of data through qualitative methods. The paper posits that the rural areas have constituted majority of the nation’s population and serve as a base for food production. The paper argues that though various rural development policies have been initiated in Nigeria, the conditions of the rural areas has not changed much since independence. Rather, development policies in Nigeria have been tilted toward the urban areas while the rural areas live in extreme poverty and lack basic health, educational and social infrastructures. It identifies emerging challenges such as corruption and mismanagement of resources, poor policy implementation, famers- herders conflicts and lack of autonomy of the local governments. The study recommends more concerted efforts in implementing rural developments projects, punishment of corrupt public officials, effective budget monitoring, provision of security and conflict resolution mechanisms and participation of the rural populace in development projects.
Keywords: Challenges, Development, Emerging, Processes, Rural
The Occurrence and sting of Velvet ant, Dentilla sp (Hymeneoptera: Mutillidae) in central of Iran (Review Completed - Accepted)
Velvet ants have been considered as pests due to their sting and nuisance. This venomous arthropod is considerably important all over the world. This study conducted for better identification and medically importance of this species particularly in Kashan. The live adult velvet ant specimens were collected from Kashan city using hand catch method. After collection they were transferred to the laboratory during summer of 2010 to 2013. They were identified based on morphological characteristics using taxonomic keys and then confirmed by expert entomologist. Cases of the stung with pain and sever itching were also monitored. The results confirmed occurrence of the velvet ant from the central Iran. A total of 248 female and male specimens were collected. 84% of them were found wingless and the rest had wings. They were observed and collected in bedrooms and living rooms, under carpets, and carpet edges. The people stung were suffering from sharp pain, intense itching, and redness at the sting site.The velvet ants were observed for the first time in May 2010 in Kashan. Subsequently, they were collected from 2011 to 2013. We recommend further investigation on the biology and biodiversity of the species in the region and possible measurement to reduce their nuisance against human being and maybe animals.
Keywords: Dentilla, Emerging, Iran, Mutilidae, Velvet ants