Tag Archives: ELISA

Comparative Analysis of Milk Samples from Bosnia and Herzegovina Contaminated With Aflatoxin M1 (Published)

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of extracellular different molds in which living organisms (plants, animals, people) cause different diseases, known collectively as mycotoxicoses. Molds, potential producers of toxic metabolites, are constantly present. Aflatoxins are the most known and most toxic mycotoxins. Aflatoxin M1 is highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 and B2. Given that occurs in the milk of mammals that were fed food contaminated mentioned aflatoxin, a mark M is received from the English word milk. Aflatoxin M1 is a relatively stable compound in raw and processed milk that has no effect on the process of pasteurization or processing into cheese. According to the Regulations on maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs maximum permissible limit of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products was 0.05 mg/kg, which is in accordance with the current regulations in force in the EU. Made many studies aflatoxin M1 in different areas and found that the presence of this toxin can affect the climate or season. As one of the tests for the detection of pathogens in food on the basis of immunological characteristics are widely applied imunoadsorpcioni enzyme assay – ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The method is designed to replace the detection and isolation of the solid phase is relatively easy to perform, can be applied to a larger number of pathogens, can be semi-automatic and gives quick results. To use the ELISA method researchers are usually decided by the fact that the ELISA is simple, sufficiently accurate, inexpensive and reliable method for the analysis of samples in a short period of time. In interpreting the results, it should be noted that the percentage of absorbance is inversely proportional to the concentration of the toxin, respectively, as a percentage of absorbance higher concentrations of not aflatoxin M1 in milk sample is lower. Although it is known that the presence of mycotoxins can not be completely avoided, the recommended preventive measures in order to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxins in animal feed refer to the quality control of production conditions and storage conditions (propionic acid to grains, hay and silage, CO2, cold storage, dry cereal, improving fermentation in silage-enzyme supplements, probiotics, bacteria).

Citation: Aldina Kesić, Mersiha Hodžić, Nadira Ibrišimović Mehmedinović, Almir Šestan(2021)Comparative Analysis of Milk Samples from Bosnia and Herzegovina Contaminated With Aflatoxin M1, European Journal of Food Science and TechnologyVol.9, No.3, pp.1-15


Keywords: ELISA, Milk, Mycotoxins, aflatoxin M1

Cytomegalovirus IgM Antibody Detection and Hepatitis B and C Coinfections among HIV Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)

Opportunistic viral infections such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are often prevalent in HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) thereby shortening the life span of infected patients. The co-infection of CMV, HBV and HCV among HIV positive patients attending ART clinics across hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, were studied. Ninety-two (92) blood samples from HIV positive individuals (males, pregnant females and non-pregnant females) were collected and serologically screened for CMV antibodies (IgM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while HBV and HCV surface antigen were determined using standard test kit. The viral loads were determined using COBAS® AmpliPrep / COBAS® TaqMan® systems. The occurrence of single or coinfection of HIV-patients with respect to their sampling class were also determined and expressed in percentage. Of samples screened, the total positive occurrence rates of 23.16±1.78%, 11.20±1.46% and 30.21±2.67% were observed for CMV, HBV and HCV while 35.43±1.85% of total respondents tested negative to all the viruses screened in this study. The total viral loads were 10184 copies/ml for CMV, 5679 copies/ml for HBV and 12678 copies/ml for HCV. For the coinfections, respondents with HBV+HCV had a total occurrence of 31.80±2.25% (13294 copies/ml) while HCV+CMV had total occurrence of 44.40±3.18% (51783 copies/ml), CMV+HBV had total occurrence of 19.25±1.67% (8679 copies/ml) and CMV+HCV+HBV had a total occurrence of 9.50±1.35% (586 copies/ml). This high prevalence rate of CMV with Hepatitis co-infection among these HIV positive individuals further support the role of viral reactivation in immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: CMV, Co-infection, ELISA, HBV, HCV, HIV, qPCR

Incidences of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatitis C Antibodies in Diabetics Patient at Oouth (Published)

In recent time, controversy have been stirred up over the aetiology of liver failure in diabetic patients. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the incidence of Hapatitis B surface antigen and Hapatitis C antibodies in diabetic patients at             OOUTH. 5ml venous blood samples was collected from the diabetic patients, centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5minutes and screened for HBV and HCV using ELISA and Diaspot Kits respectively. Out of the 230 diabetic patients screened for Hepatitis Virus Infection, 49 (19.6%) of them were positive while 185 (80.4%) were negative. HBV infection was highest in frequency by 43 (95.6%), followed by HBV and HCV co-infection, with a frequency of 2 (4.4%). Gender and ages of diabetic patients were observed not to have significant relationship with the incidence of viral hepatitis infection (P>0.05). Incidence of viral hepatitis was significantly higher in uneducated and widowed diabetic patients (P<0.05). Higher incidence of viral hepatitis infection was found to be significantly associated with tattooing (P<0.05) while no significant association was observed between same infection and each of alcoholism, blood transfusion, previous surgery and number of sex partners (P>0.05). When the diagnostic test result of diaspot was compared with ELISA, sensitivity of 11.1% and 82.2% were respectively observed (P<0.05).In conclusion, this study has established that the incidence of viral hepatitis was higher among diabetic patients with no formal education, those who are widows, and tattoo. It was further discovered that diaspot is less sensitive compared to ELISA

Keywords: Aetiology, Diabetes, ELISA, HBV, HCV, Hepatitis, Liver

Prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Ethiopian People in Khartoum State (Published)

Background: This descriptive cross sectional and analytical study has been done to study prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the impact of associated factors affecting prevalence in Ethiopian people in west Juref in Khartoum state. Methods: Seventy five blood samples collected from patients coming to Alfaruk medical center, seeking for medical care. Serum was separated from blood and subjected to rapid testing by immunochromatogrphy (ICT) to detect presence of antibody against HIV antigen. Result: Six samples were positive for presence of HIV-Abs (5-positive for HIV-1 and 1 positive for HIV-2) comprising 8% while (69) samples (92%) were negative for HIV.ELISA (Fourth generation ELISA) was done on the six positive ICT result as confirmatory test revealed presence of strong positive result indicating presence of HIV-Ab. Conclusion: Results of studying parameters of socioeconomic factors affecting. HIV prevalence indicates positive correlation showing high infection rateIn the age group (31-40years), in males (8%) more than females, all males were Christian, and maybe uncircumcised, in the same time uneducated or just at primary level.

Keywords: Ag, Aids, ELISA, HIV, ICT, serum