Cytomegalovirus IgM Antibody Detection and Hepatitis B and C Coinfections among HIV Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)
Opportunistic viral infections such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are often prevalent in HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) thereby shortening the life span of infected patients. The co-infection of CMV, HBV and HCV among HIV positive patients attending ART clinics across hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, were studied. Ninety-two (92) blood samples from HIV positive individuals (males, pregnant females and non-pregnant females) were collected and serologically screened for CMV antibodies (IgM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while HBV and HCV surface antigen were determined using standard test kit. The viral loads were determined using COBAS® AmpliPrep / COBAS® TaqMan® systems. The occurrence of single or coinfection of HIV-patients with respect to their sampling class were also determined and expressed in percentage. Of samples screened, the total positive occurrence rates of 23.16±1.78%, 11.20±1.46% and 30.21±2.67% were observed for CMV, HBV and HCV while 35.43±1.85% of total respondents tested negative to all the viruses screened in this study. The total viral loads were 10184 copies/ml for CMV, 5679 copies/ml for HBV and 12678 copies/ml for HCV. For the coinfections, respondents with HBV+HCV had a total occurrence of 31.80±2.25% (13294 copies/ml) while HCV+CMV had total occurrence of 44.40±3.18% (51783 copies/ml), CMV+HBV had total occurrence of 19.25±1.67% (8679 copies/ml) and CMV+HCV+HBV had a total occurrence of 9.50±1.35% (586 copies/ml). This high prevalence rate of CMV with Hepatitis co-infection among these HIV positive individuals further support the role of viral reactivation in immunocompromised patients.
Seroprevalence of Rubella IGG Antibodies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
The Seroprevalence of rubella IgG antibodies was investigated among 187 pregnant women attending Mile Four Hospital (MFH) Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Blood specimens were collected from the subjects and sera extracted. The sera were screened for rubella virus immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) using ELISA test Kit (Micro Immune limited, UK). The results obtained were subjected to SPSS system and Chi square test for significant difference at 95% confidence interval. Of the 187 pregnant women tested, 174(93.05 %) were positive for the rubella virus IgG. This study revealed that all the subjects who were 41 years and above tested positive 5(100.00%), whereas those who were 15 years and below 2 subjects had the prevalence rate of 50.00%. Pregnant women in their third, first and second trimesters had prevalence rates of 95.75%, (95.35%) and 86.95% accordingly. Samples tested shows that unmarried women were more infected with anti- rubella IgG of 94.44% recorded, then followed by married women with 93.79% and divorcee had 90.91%. However, widows had the least prevalence rate of 84.62%. Occupationally, women civil servants had prevalence rate of 97.56%. Educationally, pregnant women with tertiary education were more infected, rubella virus amounting to 96.61%. More infection was found among women living in rural areas with 93.59% rate, than their urban counterparts who had 92.66%. Furthermore, primigravida women were more infected (95.16%). The Sero-prevalence of rubella in this study was high and it calls for general surveillance and mass immunization of children and females of child bearing age.
Incidences of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatitis C Antibodies in Diabetics Patient at Oouth (Published)
In recent time, controversy have been stirred up over the aetiology of liver failure in diabetic patients. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the incidence of Hapatitis B surface antigen and Hapatitis C antibodies in diabetic patients at OOUTH. 5ml venous blood samples was collected from the diabetic patients, centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5minutes and screened for HBV and HCV using ELISA and Diaspot Kits respectively. Out of the 230 diabetic patients screened for Hepatitis Virus Infection, 49 (19.6%) of them were positive while 185 (80.4%) were negative. HBV infection was highest in frequency by 43 (95.6%), followed by HBV and HCV co-infection, with a frequency of 2 (4.4%). Gender and ages of diabetic patients were observed not to have significant relationship with the incidence of viral hepatitis infection (P>0.05). Incidence of viral hepatitis was significantly higher in uneducated and widowed diabetic patients (P<0.05). Higher incidence of viral hepatitis infection was found to be significantly associated with tattooing (P<0.05) while no significant association was observed between same infection and each of alcoholism, blood transfusion, previous surgery and number of sex partners (P>0.05). When the diagnostic test result of diaspot was compared with ELISA, sensitivity of 11.1% and 82.2% were respectively observed (P<0.05).In conclusion, this study has established that the incidence of viral hepatitis was higher among diabetic patients with no formal education, those who are widows, and tattoo. It was further discovered that diaspot is less sensitive compared to ELISA
Background: This descriptive cross sectional and analytical study has been done to study prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the impact of associated factors affecting prevalence in Ethiopian people in west Juref in Khartoum state. Methods: Seventy five blood samples collected from patients coming to Alfaruk medical center, seeking for medical care. Serum was separated from blood and subjected to rapid testing by immunochromatogrphy (ICT) to detect presence of antibody against HIV antigen. Result: Six samples were positive for presence of HIV-Abs (5-positive for HIV-1 and 1 positive for HIV-2) comprising 8% while (69) samples (92%) were negative for HIV.ELISA (Fourth generation ELISA) was done on the six positive ICT result as confirmatory test revealed presence of strong positive result indicating presence of HIV-Ab. Conclusion: Results of studying parameters of socioeconomic factors affecting. HIV prevalence indicates positive correlation showing high infection rateIn the age group (31-40years), in males (8%) more than females, all males were Christian, and maybe uncircumcised, in the same time uneducated or just at primary level.