Tag Archives: Egypt

Down in Minutes, Out for six Hours: A Brief report on feelings during the outage of WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook (Published)

Social media (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram) has become a critical part of life for many people. Moreover, the use of social media influences mental and physical health. The importance of social media in daily life was evident during the global outage of social media in October 2021, which manifested as discomfort and displeasure at the incident that allegedly paused lives for 6 h. The current study aims to examine the feelings experienced during the outage from the Egyptian perspective. The study recruited 300 participants aged between 16 and 65 years via convenience sampling. An online survey that collected demographic information and presented one question about feelings experienced during the outage was conducted. The results indicated that the majority of the participants experienced negative feelings (e.g., boredom, loneness, and frustration), whereas other participants stated relief, relaxation, and comfort. Lastly, a few participants did not recognize the situation as a universal problem.

Citation: Nayera Mohamed Shousha and   Leena Rowan Abdelgawad (2021) Down in Minutes, out for six Hours: A Brief report on feelings during the outage of WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook, British Journal of Psychology Research, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 38-44

Keywords: Egypt, Facebook, Instagram., Social media, WhatsApp, outage

The effect of organizational culture on strategic thinking: Field study on petroleum companies in Egypt (Published)

This research investigate the relation between organizational culture and strategic thinking. It depend on 16 hypotheses which were refused and accept the alternative hypotheses. The research depend on three companies in petroleum sector in Egypt.

Keywords: Egypt, Organizational Culture, Strategic Thinking, field study, petroleum companies

Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Benthic Foraminifera From the Esna Shale of Duwi Section, Red Sea Coast of Egypt (Published)

Issawi et al. (1999) distinguished detailed seven facies that characterized the upper Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary rocks of Egypt, from north to south:  Sinai Facies (SF), Ataqa Facies (AF), North Western Desert Facies (NWDF), Southern Galala Facies (SGF), Farafra Bahariya Facies (FBF), Nile Valley Facies (NVF), Nuba Abu Ballas Facies (NABF), which suggest gradual paleogeographical changes from transitional open marine environmental facies in the northern Egypt to shallow shelf setting in the south due to paleorelief (highs and lows of the Syrian Arc System, Laramid Orogeny) in the upper Cretaceous. Each type facies has certain formations, which differ from the adjacent one, though some formations may cross the boundaries between two contiguous facies. According to these authors the contact between the deep (in the north) and shallow marine facies (in the south) nearly coincides around Lat. 28º N (but about Lat. 27º N of Anan, 1987). The studied Duwi section, Red Sea coast of Egypt, represents the Nile Valley Facies. The Tethyan aspect, Midway-Type Fauna (MTF) of middle-outer neritic environment (100-200 m) is interpreted for the Esna Shale of this section.  This study deals with the paleontology and stratigraphy of sixty nine diagnostic benthic foraminiferal species were recorded from the upper Paleocene-early Eocene transition of the study section, and thirty seven species of them are illustrated. Its paleobiogeography distribution in different localities in the Northern and Southern Tethys is detected.

Keywords: Duwi section, Egypt, Esna Shale, Paleogene, Tethys., foraminifera

Righting/Rewriting Arab History in Arab American Narrative (Published)

Arab nation is one of the most ancient nations in the world. Their history goes back to The Bronze Age (3200–1300 BC). However, such a history is totally distorted as it was written according to the whims of the colonizers. Arab history has been massively transformed; their culture deprecated and entirely disparaged; their wealth plundered. However, some Arab and Arab-American writers have started a mission to rewrite the deformed history of Arabs. One of these writers is Samia Serageldin, whose novel The Naqib’s Daughter is a rewriting of the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. The present article argues that Egyptian history has been defaced by the colonial powers and that Serageldin has succeeded in bringing to light the false claims of the colonists. The article maintains that the novel is a counter-discursive postcolonial novel, in which Serageldin attempts to right and rewrite the history of Egypt from the point of view of Egyptians themselves. The article aims also at analyzing The Naqib’s Daughter in terms of the contemporary political developments in the Arab world and the role played by world superpowers in shaping and reshaping the contemporary history.

Keywords: Colonialism, Egypt, French invasion, history, rewriting

I got my Vengeance: Sexual Harassment, Coping Strategies and Counterproductive Behaviours in Egypt (Published)

Sexual harassment is a prevailing phenomenon in Egypt. However, there is limited research on workplace sexual harassment and its consequences. The current research tries to examine the relationships between workplace sexual harassment and counterproductive work behaviours. Moreover, the moderating effect of coping strategies on these relationship is also investigated. A convenience sample on 260 working women was drawn from different work settings in Cairo, Egypt. They responded to a three-part questionnaire that assesses workplace sexual harassment, coping strategies, and counterproductive work behaviours. The results indicated that workplace sexual harassment was positively correlated with all aspects of counterproductive work behaviours. Moreover, no moderation effects were obtained for different coping strategies. These results were discussed in the light of the extant theoretical and empirical literature. In addition, limitation, future research and conclusion are also reported.

Keywords: Coping Strategies, Egypt, Sexual Harassment, Workplace, counterproductive work behaviours

Education Ltd.” – The Influence of British Earl of Cromer on the Education System in Egypt (1883 – 1907) (Published)

This article focuses on a historic issue: the influence of the Earl of Cromer (who served as the British Consul-General in Egypt) on the local education system. The writer has a PhD in education and a B.A. in Middle East History. Hence, the article reflects an inter-disciplinary approach – education and history. Coping with the issue was done via examination of the declared educational goals and the activities in practice as well as the local population’s responses to the activities. Allegedly, Cromer failed in his attempted reforms in Egyptian education. This article attempts to examine the issue from a process-holistic approach attributing meaning to all actions taken by Cromer in the education system.

Keywords: British Earl of Cromer, Education Ltd, Education System, Egypt

Do the Different Components of the Internal Control System Significantly Contribute To the Quality of the Audit Report in Egypt? (Published)

This paper investigates the effects of internal control system (control environment, control activities, Risk assessment, information & communication and monitoring) (ICS) on the Quality of audit report (QAR). A questionnaire was used to collect data regarding the perceptions of the external and internal auditors on the effect of internal control system on the audit report quality. In order to support and confirm the questionnaire results, a number of interviews were conducted with two target groups. The questionnaire was distributed to (55) external and internal auditors, practicing the profession in Egypt after being reviewed by its professors in the Egyptian universities specialized in statistics.40 of which were received, this yields a response rate of 72%. The results of the statistical analysis showed a statistically significant effect of the information and communication, monitoring on the quality of the audit report. On the other hand, the relationship between (control environment, control activities and risk assessment) and audit report quality not significant. The research makes a significant contribution to knowledge and practice in the auditing field in Egypt, by identifying the justification for this finding is that internal control systems in Egyptian companies are flawed and lack the current scientific tools because most of these companies rely on old procedures to evaluate their internal control systems. Therefore, these procedures must be modified and overcomed.

Keywords: Components Internal Control System (ICS), Egypt, the Quality of Audit Report (QAR).


This research paper sheds light on how to stimulate the role of historic architectural elements and repertoire in Egypt in order to apply green architecture principles. The paper assumes that architectural solutions used in historic buildings constitute important elements favoring the application of green architecture principles in residential construction. A model measurement matrix intended for use in the realization of this assumption is proposed.The paper begins with an overview of the Egyptian Green Pyramid rating system, a tool used to measure buildings’ adherence to environmental standards, and their fundamental conditions and criteria. The measurement matrix proposed by the researchers (along with its major evaluation criteria) is then presented. Following a discussion of green architecture in Egypt and a review of the green architecture aspects in the repertoire of historic Islamic architecture, an explanation of the measurement method employed is provided. The paper goes on to investigate historic residential buildings (the Al-Suheimi House and the Zeinab Khatoun House), pointing out the environmental elements and concepts featured in their architectural design. Analytical studies of green residential buildings (projects that were awarded first prize in the Toshka Green Architecture Competition) and of eco-friendly residential buildings reveal the environmental merits of Islamic architecture (Aga Khan and Hassan Fathy award-winning projects). The above buildings are examined and assessed using both the measurement matrix and the Green Pyramid rating system as comparative references in order to corroborate the environmental suitability of Islamic architectural elements and to demonstrate how they may be assessed and applied. The paper concludes that the degree of application of the measurement matrix is directly proportional to the degree of application of Green Pyramid rating system criteria. The proposed measurement matrix model can thus realistically be considered a major approach to the application of green architecture principles.

Keywords: Egypt, Environmentally Friendly Eco-Friendly, Green Architecture, Green Pyramid, Islamic Architecture, Residential Buildings