Purpose: Information technology has been implemented by organizations in East Africa with most transactions and records being digital. At end of the financial year, these organizations require their financial statements to be audited. This study was to first take stock of the level of adoption of audit software by Small and Medium-sized Practices (SMPs) in East Africa. This comes at a time where the Covid-19 pandemic has led to even further computerization as organizations implemented health directives on face-to-face contact, paperless environment and work-from-home initiatives, among others. Methodology: A questionnaire comprising seven questions were sent out to sampled firms to respond electronically via the SurveyMonkey® tool. Out of about 1310 firms, the questionnaire was sent out to a random sample of 700. Results: A total of 251 responses were received (36% of the sample). 70% of the SMPs were 1-10 years old in practice. Only one-in-four firms (25%) had adopted audit software. The four most common audit software were CaseWare®, Myaudit, PCAS and DraftWorxTM. The three major benefits from using audit software were the improvement in audit quality, audit project efficiencies and IFRS-compliant accounts. The three main challenges faced in adoption of audit software were the high costs of the software licenses, the lack of timely vendor support and the unstable/high cost of internet connectivity. The three main suggestions to increase adoption of audit software by SMPs in East Africa were to compel all the firms to adopt, to lower the cost of the software and probably develop a home-grown solution. Significance of study: The study has helped highlight the extent of adoption of audit software. It has also revealed the most common audit software in use. With this information, the NBAAT, ICPAK, ICPAU, iCPAR and OPC can develop a 3-year roadmap to facilitate the SMPs to gradually acquire the audit software. At each Annual Practitioner’s Forum, adoption of audit software and how it enables the firm’s business to grow can become a permanent topic. This can supplement the advanced Microsoft Excel® training that is being undertaken by most of the SMPs. Future research: After a 2-year period, further research can include an in-depth interview with a sample of firms that responded to determine the influence of audit software or lack thereof on their competitiveness among fellow SMPs in their respective countries.
Human Information Infrastructure and Administrative Efficiency (HIIAE) Of Selected Enterprises in the Civil Aviation Industry in the South-South, Nigeria (Published)
This paper examined how human infrastructure impacts on administration efficiency of aviation industry in Nigeria. In line with the purpose of this paper as stated, population of this study comprises of 80 senior and junior staff of the various ICT departments of four Airports operating in the South-South of Nigeria. The Taro-Yamene sample size determination formula was used to determine the sample size. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between human infrastructure impacts on administration efficiency of aviation industry. Questionnaires were the major instruments used in gathering primary data which were analyzed using regression analyses. The study found that aviation industry can achieve improvement along the terms of administration efficiency if the aviation industry is able to improve on their products and deliver on their service more effectively and efficiently base on the findings, we recommends that in order for firms to maintain their attractiveness in the industry, they must have be conscious what modern technology is available in the industry and apply same on their own business as this will help the in expanding their market coverage with different products.
Effects of Ergonomic Environment and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) On Secretarial Efficiencies in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State (Published)
Effects of ergonomic environment and information and communication technology (ICT) on secretarial efficiencies in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State were investigated. The population consisted of all secretarial staff and executives/directors in all tertiary institutions while the sample was 180 respondents randomly selected from three tertiary institutions. The research instrument was questionnaire, validated with a reliability co-efficient of 0.77. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentages for the research question while the hypothesis was tested using Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that the physical environments of the institutions are conducive for work and some necessary facilities that could aid the efficiency of secretarial staff are provided but inadequate. It was concluded that good working environment is indispensable in today’s workplace for the efficiency and effectiveness of secretarial workers. It was recommended that efforts must be made to design jobs that help employees reduce and break up their sitting time, among others.
Contribution of community conservation projects on improved livelihoods, and sustainable biodiversity conservation in Nyungwe National Park (Published)
Recently, Rwanda Development Board (RDB) has established a revenue sharing scheme (RSS) to create a win-win approach in protected areas for effective biodiversity conservation and management. Through this scheme, around 1 billion Rwandan francs were invested to support around 152 Community Based Conservation Projects (CBCs), and integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs). This paper assessed the contribution of conservation projects around Nyungwe National Park (NNP). It evaluated their efficiency and effectiveness, and their socio-economic impact to the local community development. Secondary data about the revenue sharing projects and the amount of money allocated to each project were collected from RDB office. Primary data were collected through the interview and focus group discussion. To verify the findings from RDB, interview and focus group discussion (FGD) were used. Interview was done with local peoples around Nyungwe National Park and with community conservation wardens, while threats to NNP were verified by the consultation of reports from ranger based monitoring officers. The results showed that the value of resources collected by people from the park is higher than the revenue sharing support offered by RDB and consequently the revenue sharing scheme did not significantly reduce threats to biodiversity and its impact around NNP. We recommend the revision of the whole revenue sharing scheme, taking into account the cost of livelihoods of community surrounding the park.
The Efficiency in the Cognitive Representation of Information among the Students’ Enrolled in the Faculty of Education at the University of Hail in the light of some variables (Published)
The present study aimed to identify the extent of efficiency in the cognitive representation of information among the students’ enrolled in the faculty of education at the University of Hail. The study’s sample consists from 320 female and male students. The researcher used the cognitive representation scale which was developed by Rajab (2007). It was found that the level of the cognitive representation efficiency is moderate among those students. The efficiency in adopting the feature comparison model is ranked first. The efficiency in adopting the cognitive network modelis ranked second. The efficiency in adopting the spreading activation model is ranked third. It was found that there is a statistically significant difference between the students’ cognitive representation efficiency level which can be attributed to gender. The latter difference is for the favor of females. It was found that there is a statistically significant difference between the students’ efficiency levels which can be attributed to the academic year. The latter difference is for the favor of fourth year students. It was found that there is a statistically significant difference between the students’ efficiency levels which can be attributed to the academic achievement level. The latter difference is for the favor of the students whose academic achievement is excellent.
Profitability and Marketing Efficiency of Smoked Fish: An Empirical Evidence from Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
The level of efficiency and profitability of the market and marketing functions are very important for sustainable marketing of agricultural products like fish. To ensure continuous availability of fish for human consumption, nutrition, and wellbeing, the Nigerian economy requires effective and efficient marketing systems. Fish marketing serves as a medium for bridging the gap between producers and consumers of fish. The study considers 80 fish marketers from Ondo state using purposive sampling technique. The data collected for the study were analysed using budgetary technique and shepherd efficiency model. The study revealed that fish marketing is profitable with gross margin of #38,101.36 and 15k as return on investment. The shepherd efficiency model revealed that fish marketing activities among fish marketers is highly efficient with efficiency value far higher (558.0%) than 100% deducing that an increase in the cost of performing marketing service (that is added time, form and place utility) by 100 percent will give a more than proportionate increase of 458.0 percent in the level of satisfaction derived from a kilogram of fish sold in the market. It was recommended that government should focus on policy that encourages farmers and young graduates in the business as it is noted for profitability, efficiency and a source of livelihood.
State Police and Police- Operational Efficiency: Footing For Strengthening National Security In Nigeria: – A Scrutiny of Ojo in Lagos State (Published)
The current insecurity in Nigeria which includes widespread killings, kidnappings, cultism and police brutality justifies the agitation for creation of state police in Nigeria. Hence, this paper assessed the creation of state police and police operational efficiency as footing for strengthening national security in Nigeria. The study applied theoretical and quantitative methods; information was sourced secondarily through content analysis of textbooks, journals and newspaper. The quantitative data was obtained through administration of 250 questionnaires to the residents of Ojo Local Government by applying simple random sampling and convince techniques. Findings showed that 66 %( 165) of the respondents were male while 34% (85) of the respondents were female, 79%(198) of the respondents strongly agreed that state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria while 15%(37), strongly disagreed that creation of state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria however 6%(15) of the respondents were neutral. The paper recommends creation of state police with strict judicial control and deployment of smart security technologies. This study will be of immense benefits to government at various levels, NGOs, the Nigeria Police Force and the researchers in the field of security and public administration.
The organizational education constitutes a modern tool for the big firms to evaluate and develop the professional skills of their employees and furthermore, to achieve an increase in their efficiency levels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between the continuous organizational education of the employees and their anticipation along with the level fulfilment of their working needs, and at the same time how this fact affects the development of their professional skills, in order for them to have a sustainability in the organization. For the needs of the current study, the appropriate data were collected from a sample of 110 employees of a customer service call centre, part of one of the biggest insurance organizations in Greece. The tool used to collect the data was a questionnaire of 20 questions according to the Likert style, along with 3 open questions that were provided to the employees with the option to express their further opinion. Lastly, for the analysis of the above data, the model of the 4 stages of Kirkpatrick was used, a model which evaluates the results of the organizational education. The statistical analysis of the given responses, showed a positive reaction of the employees about the procedures of the educational trainings (personal and as a team) and a relevant positive outcome regarding the results of the organizational educational planning and development. Furthermore, certain strategic deficiencies were discovered and suggestions were proposed in order to be eliminated.
Benchmark and Competitive Analysis of Port Performances Model: Algeciras Bay, Rotterdam, New York-New Jersey and Tangier Med (Published)
In this research paper four sea ports namely, Tanger Med, Algeciras Bay, Rotterdam and New York-New Jersey has been taken into study to understand and evaluate their efficiency of operations and benchmark them. Port efficiency is the measure of amount of input and output and their ratio. Port efficiency is not solely dependent on port performance. The port performance strategies of the case ports were studied and efficiency variables were found through various literatures. To analyze input and output variables of the ports, efficiency software named Data Envelopment Analysis Program was used to find the most efficient ports. Then the variables for the most efficient ports were benchmarked and ranked. A hypothetical port efficiency model has also been suggested for better efficiency of the ports.
In the present work, the effect of dust on the efficiency of an Evacuated Tube Solar Collector was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experiments were performed on Evacuated Tube Solar collectors exposed to the ambient winter season in Minquin, China from 8 to 18h00. A mathematical model used for two modules, one present dust accumulation of 0 mg/m2 (clean collector) and 2.6E-05 mg/m2 (dusty collector with 15.24 % of the reduction in radiation). The ASHRAE Standard 93-86 was used to calculate the efficiency. The results show in comparison with and without dust, the daily optical efficiency decrease of 17.6 % and the average stagnation temperature decreases from 7.30C–1.80C in a solar collector with 2.6E-05 mg/m2.
Impact of a Cognitively Modified Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition of Second Language Users of Grade 2: A Study Conducted in a Private American School in Dubai (Published)
This experimental study was conducted to find the impact of modified instructional strategies on the vocabulary and reading comprehension skills of grade 2 (7 year old) students of English as second language. The main research question was that how will the cognitively modified instruction impact the vocabulary acquisition of grade two students with Arabic as first. The research hypothesis was that if the instruction in class is designed to help students acquire vocabulary skills while the cognitive load is reduced during the learning process, it will result in improved performance (Cooper 1998). To test the hypothesis, specific instruction was tailored using principles of split-attention effect, modality effect, and redundancy effect to reduce the cognitive load. The experiment group was exposed to modified instruction for four weeks, 50 minutes lesson each day. Deviation method was used to analyse the impact of modified instruction on students’ performance. Results on performance and mental effort tests of the experimental group indicated that reduced cognitive load helped increase the performance of students in vocabulary and comprehension acquisition. Efficiency metric showed that students in experiment group demonstrated better efficiency as compared to the control group. Lesson observations were conducted to validate the delivery of the instruction as per the design. The findings of the observation reflected a higher level of student engagement. The study concludes that modified instruction with reduced cognitive load results in increased performance of the learners of the English as a second language. The key theories consulted were theory of evolution, cognition, schema, and cognitive load theory.
The paper titled: Assets Safeguard and Business Performance in Quoted Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria empirically assessed the influence, safeguarding corporate assets exerts on business performance. The empirical referents in focus are efficiency, effectiveness and profitability. The research design adopted is the survey. Data was collected within a framework sample size of thirty-two (32) quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Pearson product moment correlation and QSR Nvivo were adopted in analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data. The findings show that assets safeguard has positive and significant influence on business performance. The study conclude that safeguard of manufacturing firms assets enhances their performance through profitability operational effectiveness and resource utilization efficiency. It is therefore recommended that manufacturing firms should be conscious of their assets safeguard mechanism through proper identification and accountability of assets of all kinds to minimize wastage, losses and ownership conversion by persons of such tendencies.
Esteeming the Neck and Neck for Compliance of Public Procurement Policy in the Public Institutions in Ghana (Published)
Procurement policies are rules and regulations for governing procurement procedures in public organization. The study adopted purposive sampling method in selecting the respondents from whom data was collected. A total number of Sixty-five (65) questionnaires were administered. From the study, it was revealed that there should be some level of compliance with respect to professionalism, transparency, efficiency and value for money, competitiveness and accountability, ethics and compliance with regulatory framework. It was also revealed that there are weaknesses in public procurement system. The study therefore recommended that Procurement Units in the various institutions should make sure that tender evaluation be conducted by competent persons in order to make informed decisions.
This paper seeks to examine the influence of process control on business performance of quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted. Three (3) tentative assertions, hypotheses were formulated. The sample size was thirty-two (32) quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Pearson product moment correlation and QSR-Nvivo aided the quantitative and qualitative data analysis respectively. The study findings indicated that process control has very positive relationship with business performance. In conclusion, profitability, effectiveness and efficiency adoption as proxies of business performance has been proven to be largely a function of process control. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should increase the control measure in the work process to ensure conformity and avoidance of deviations, in order to achieve higher performance in their operations.
Training and Efficiency: A Quantitative Survey of Administrative Officials in Local Self-Government Authorities (Published)
This paper presents the results of a quantitative survey that was conducted on local self-government officials of the municipality of Larissa, with the aim of exploring their views on the contribution of training to their job performance. It also investigated whether these views differ according to the officials’ gender, age and seniority. The research results showed that officials recognise the benefits of training, in terms both of their personal efficiency and of the efficiency of the organisation where they work. These views do not appear to be statistically significantly different, on the basis of predefined variables.
Joseph Conrad’s in his Heart of Darkness has been condemned as a supporter and defender of the imperialist views and in other situations he is thought to be ambivalent, ambiguous and indecisive concerning this same topic. This paper aims at proving that in Heart of Darkness Conrad employs strategy of introducing the long established imperial clichés to debunk them and to show how fake they are. This strategy is successful and convincing in depicting the cruelties that are caused by the power and authority of imperialism especially if we put this novel within its historical context; a time when imperialism and all of its byproducts were acceptable as practices of the white man’s burden theory
Performance Optimization of a Multistage Centrifugal Pump for Heavy End Recovery Using Desirability Function Approach (Published)
Optimal geometrical (operational)/performanceparameters of a radial split axial pull-out barrel casing multistage centrifugal pump of BB5 class used for heavy end recovery in a natural gas to liquid plant was determined in this study. Impeller discharge diameter,pump suction pipe diameter, impeller blade length, blade discharge angle, impeller discharge widthand radial tip clearance constitutethe factors whose influences on the pumps major flow parameters(efficiency, flow rate, head and speed) were evaluated. The experimental plan applied is completely randomized single replicate Box-Wilson central composite circumscribed block design comprisingthirty-two factorial points, ten centre pointsand twelve axial points while desirability function approach was used in the multi-response optimization of response function of the pump parameters developed. Results revealed 417, 366 70, 39°, 36 and 64 as the optimal pump suction piping diameter, impeller discharge diameter, impeller blade length, blade discharge angle, impeller radial tip clearance and impeller blade discharge widthrespectively. Performance analysis showed that the pump operates with an efficiency, flow rate, head and speed of 78.30, 191.55, 967.50 and 2505 respectivelyat these optimal factors setting and itsenergy consumption reduced by 1.2%.
Assessing the Efficiency of Soya Bean Marketing In the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts of Ghana (Published)
The study aimed at assessing the efficiencies of soya bean marketing channels in the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts, Ghana. The multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selecting thirty-seven soya bean farmers, two wholesalers, seven retailers, two small-scale processors and one large-scale processor of soya beans for the study. Gross Margin analysis was employed in determining the marketing costs and margins whereas the Shepherd’s Method was used in analyzing the efficiencies of the marketing channels. The study revealed that nine different channels existed through which soya bean was marketed in the study areas, with the simplest channel (Channel 1) being where farmers sell directly to consumers. Analysis of marketing cost and margins revealed that comparatively, Channel 1 had the least cost (GH₵2.40) and margins (GH₵10.50) since farmers dealt directly with consumers without any interference from market intermediaries, who usually increase transaction cost. From the study, Channel 1 was the most efficient channel with an Efficiency Index of 37.71. Thus, its marketing cost constituted a smaller proportion of the consumer price. The study recommends that farmers use Channel 1 where they sell directly to consumers to market their produce and also form co-operatives to protect them against price fluctuation and give them assurance of buyers. Moreso, the central government is directed to intervene in the form of road construction and improvement to help reduce the excessive transportation cost associated with the soya bean trade in Ghana
Working Capital Management and Profitability: Evidence from the Cement Industry in Bangladesh (Published)
Cement Industry plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Bangladesh. Profitability of this industry is highly related with the efficient working capital management, but the profitability of this industry is not satisfactory. This study is designed to show the profitability and working capital position of Cement industries, correlation between them and whether the profitability is affected by Working Capital Management. Ratio Analysis, Correlation Matrix and Regression Analysis have been used to show Profitability. Working Capital position, correlation between them and the impact of Working Capital on Profitability respectively. For the source of data the author mainly relied on Annual Reports and official records. It is observed from the study that profitability and Working Capital Management position of the Cement industry are not satisfactory.The study reveals that correlation exist between Working Capital Management and Profitability. The study also brings to fore that Working Capital Management has a positive impact on Profitability.
MEASURING THE EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINING FUNCTION AT ORANGE JORDAN (Published)
The objective of this paper is to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources training function at one of the telecommunication companies in Jordan “Orange Jordan”. The target population for this study is 140 unit managers and their assistants at Orange Jordan. A total of 105 unit managers participated in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by factor analysis; explanatory and confirmatory data modeling and Cronbach’s alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. The findings of the study stipulate that the primary function of training department today is to ensure the implementation of the standards of effectiveness and efficiency to accomplish an organization’s goals and objectives. Using Training as a competitive advantage means analyzing the factors necessary for the organization’s long-term success. Areas such as training design, training processes, training policies, effective trainer, training strategies, training goals and objectives are essential to this concept. In order to formulate appropriate competitive advantage through the effectiveness and efficiency of the training function, it is first recommended to analyze the firm’s strategic needs. The training department should create a complete model of training function and a more coherent attempt must be made to improve the level of internal communication between the unit managers and their employees. This would create an environment within Orange Jordan that can promote mutual respect, trust and concern between management and employees.