Teachers and Learners in Vocational Agricultural High Schools Face Challenges: The News from Cameroon, (Published)
Challenges in teaching and learning agriculture remain an important and unresolved problem across sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges in teaching and learning agriculture in Vocational Agricultural High schools in Cameroon. Using a mixed method descriptive survey research design, data was collected with separate questionnaires for students and teachers. A total of 98 respondents, 18 teachers and 80 students from the 3 existing agricultural high schools were involved. Purposive, proportional and convenience sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. Data collected was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Several challenges were identified: inadequate teaching and learning resources, frequent use of teacher-centred teaching methods and the need to improve on training of teachers. Gaining vital insights into the current capacity and capability of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system in Cameroon especially related to the teaching and learning of agriculture and generating evidence needed to inform policy on possible ways of improving TVET delivery in high schools can contribute to the development of a skilled workforce and Cameroons sustainable development. We recommend the putting in place of a comprehensive TVET development policy that will make sure the available resources are well coordinated and distributed while those that are completely absent are purchased and all stakeholders participate in defining the training of teachers and students to ensure quality. This, could result in properly trained youths with directly employable skills, reduce unemployment and poverty, and in consequence, foster sustainable development.
Sandwich Programme Enrolment: Policy and Management Implications for Ghanaian Higher Education (Published)
The current study used survey approach to examine sandwich masters students views on factors influencing their decision to enrol in educational administration and management programme at a teacher university in Ghana. Randomisation technique was used in selecting 131 samples from 161second-year session students of the programme with 51% males and 49% female participants with urban students dominating the samples in the study. Questionnaires and open-ended items were used to solicit students’ views that allowed for the use of inferential and interpretivists’ data analysis techniques. Hence, applying logistic and multiple regressions as well as frequency counts, two hypotheses were tested and the results showed that student’ perceptions of their own circumstances and institutional constraints explained 19.4% of variance in decisions to engage with their current programme of study. Also, institutional (GES) factors showed statistical significant difference between male and female students with the odd ratio of 1.12 higher for males than females. Consequently, the study concludes that students’ decisions to study on the educational administration and management programme were significantly related to their employers’ policy and the admission constraints such as faculty attitudes and teaching and living resources. Implications for managerial policy review were discussed in the paper.
Political Leadership and Policy Decisions in Africa: A Critical Reflection on Policies in Education and Employment in Ghana. (Published)
Since colonial times, governments in Ghana have inherited political power with different development plans, owned by the government and amended by the incoming one when its predecessor leaves power. Article 35(7) of the Directive Principle of State Policy in Ghana states that “[A]s far as practicable, a government shall continue and execute projects and programmes commenced by the previous Governments.” This provision is supported by both the National Development Planning Commission Act and the National Development Planning Act to strengthen the role of the National Development Planning Commission which oversees the broader implementation of development strategies in the country. The analysis in this paper is influenced by interviews conducted with officials of the Ministry of Education in Ghana, the Ghana Education Service, selected heads and teachers of sampled secondary schools, as well as parents. A total of twenty (20) respondents were purposively sampled and interviewed. The analysis of the primary data was supported by other secondary sources including peer-reviewed journal articles, books and reports of educational development in Ghana. The results indicate the utter disregard for the provisions in both educational and employment policies and strategies in the country and its associated consequence on the purse of the public and general development of the state. The paper concludes that the apparent lack of consistency, over-politicization and the piecemeal attitude with which Ghanaian political leaders implement important national development policies may be mitigated by the adoption of development strategies that are national in character rather than government-specific and these strategies should be binding on all successive governments and geared towards an accelerated growth at all levels in the country