This study focused on the contribution of ecotourism to the conservation of Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda (NNP). It critically examines the integration of local communities in conservation of Nyungwe National Park and the contribution of the ecotourism’s revenue sharing to community development. We present empirical data from interviews, a predesigned questionnaire, Range Based Monitoring (RBM) data and data from tourism unit in Nyungwe National Park. Results showed that community conservation efforts have been put in place to reduce threats in the park, but still, there are cases of poaching, tree cutting and mining, cited among many other illegal activities. The number of tourists increased considerably in recent years, suggesting in revenue sharing. However, community based initiatives are still at low levels and the expected objective to alleviate poverty is not yet fully achieved. Research concluded that there is a need to improve the revenue sharing program so that it will contribute to the community development and motivate people to effectively participate in the conservation of Nyungwe National Park.
Recreational use of water is often given inadequate consideration and care. This is of particular concern as the recreational use of water is becoming popular in Nigeria . Many of these are increasingly contaminated by domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study is therefore relevant in assessing the environmental impact of microbes on ecotourism in Awba dam. A total of nine water (n=9) and soil (n= 9) samples were collected at entry, middle and the end of the Awba dam for heavy metal analysis and microbial assay. Samples were assessed for heavy metals using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total aerobic plate count, Isolation and characterization of strains was done using standard methods. For enumeration of E. coliO157:H7, colonies were characterized using standard methods. The direct slide agglutination technique was utilized for serology. The presumptive E. coli isolates were subjected to agglutination tests with specific E. coli O157:H7 . For the antibiotic sensitivity test, the Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method was used to test the sensitivity of the isolates. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used and Duncan multiple range test was used to separate the means. All the values obtained for the total aerobic count and total coliform count for soil and water were higher than EPA recommended value for recreational waters. For the antibiotic Sensitivity Profile, isolates from Awba dam showed the highest sensitivity (16.17mm) to ciprofloxacin while lowest was with Augmentine (8.25mm).Furthermore the isolate from the control point showed highest sensitivity to CPR and NIT ( 14mm) and least for AUG (5mm) Generally, E.coliO157:H7 isolates were highly sensitive to Oflatoxin and Ciproflaxin(93.3%) while the isolate was completely resistant to Ampicilin and Cefuroxime. The presence of E.coliO157:H7 in the dam can make the dam unfit for recreational activities and also for the community household chores, if not well treated . The University management should device means of controlling waste water that enters into the dam by providing alternate channels of discharge .This will reduce the growth and spread of the microbes in the soil and water of the dam.
The object of research is Eco-Tourism in protectad areas and its Sustainable Development Challenges. It should be noted that national parks and protected areas have huge potential for ecotourism development. Its goal is to conserve ecosystems and create environmental awareness between people. Sustainable tourism means the duty of the society to provide the protection and maintenance of the environment for the future generations.We should realize what does ecologically sustainable environment means for the development of tourism and what part in this case plays eco-tourism as one of the main part of the development of the sustainable tourism. So, as to provide sustainable economy for tourism, tourist sustainability is needed. During the sustainable development of tourism the resources should be used so as to satisfy economic, social and esthetic needs, but at the same time maintain the originality of the country. The main biological variety of the environment and the main tourist systems, the stable development of tourism should provide social, cultural, ecological and economical criteria of harmonic mixture, which will give us not only maintenance of natural and cultural resources, but will become the predominance of their development and renovation.
Ecotourism Potential of Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Assessing Ecological Sites, Cultural Resources and Attitudes of Host-Communities (Published)
This study was undertaken to assess ecotourism potential of Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Twenty-four (24) ecological sites across the 3 ecological zones of the State and the local communities were purposively selected for the study. Twenty (20) community opinion leaders were purposively selected from each local community making 300 respondents. Focus Group Discussions were also held among various groups of adult males, females and youths. Primary data were collected by the use of interview schedule while secondary data were sourced from publications of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Ebonyi State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy. Data were analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics including mean scores from 4-point Likert-type scales and probit analysis. Result shows that ecological attractions in the State range from salt and fresh water lakes to beaches, waterfalls, hills, rock formations, caves and forests. There are also 20 identifiable fun-filled festivals celebrated all year round in the State. Furthermore, the socio-cultural environments of host communities were found to be supportive of ecotourism development and various host communities were willing to cooperate to develop ecotourism cluster. Governments at state and local levels are advised to ensure availability and functionality of socio-economic infrastructure in host communities. NGOs and Community Development Associations (CDAs) should strengthen advocacy to dismantle some cultural barriers that tend to exclude women from participation in some aspects of ecotourism development.