Bioproductivity of two contrasting watershed management system were evaluated in pot and field experiment to ascertain the effect of management and slope on the productivity of okra. The field studies were conducted on four slope gradients of watershed in an experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The pot experiments were carried out on the soils of the two management practices (managed and unmanaged) and were arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. NPK fertilizer 15:15:15 at the rate of 150kg/ha was applied as blanket treatment and okra used as test crop. The experiment was carried out on a sandy loam typic paleudult in Amawbia Anambra state southeast Nigerian. The data generated from the study were subjected to analysis of variance and significant mean differences were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The result of the study showed that natural environments of the four slopes in managed plots significantly increased the growth and yield parameters of okra than the unmanaged plots. Slope 4 (plain) of the managed watershed recorded statistically similar productivity with the unmanaged plots by virtue of their non-significant difference (P < 0.05) exhibited in most of the parameters assessed. The NPK fertilizer result indicated that the treatment boasted the productivity of both managed and unmanaged watershed ecosystem.
Productivity assessment of two different management systems in sub-divided four different gradients (Published)
Watersheds are naturally productive but most ecologically vulnerable section of the landscape. Productivity assessment of two contrasting watershed were studied in Amawbia south east, Nigeria using amaranthus as test crop under field and pot experiments. The experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and complete randomized design (CRD) respectively in managed and unmanaged system of the watershed with NPK at the rate of 150kg/ha. Findings from the study showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among the slopes, managements, slope and management as well as natural environment and NPK in all the parameters assessed. Higher values were recorded in managed system in all the parameters and values obtained from NPK were observed to be higher than the values obtained from natural environment. Natural environment of the four slopes studied in managed plot significantly recorded increased growth and yield of amaranthus than the unmanaged plots. Thus, the findings of the study are evidence that sustainable management of soil and water resources is based on the judicious and scientific management of all landscape units within a watershed. As land degradation beyond the point of no return, pollution and eutropication of water and environment are all traceable to poor and mismanagement of landscape units within a watershed.
Using tomato to assess the bio-productivity of two different ecosystems in four different land slopes (Published)
Unplanned agricultural activities characteristic of Nigerian agricultural system and southeast in particular strongly exposed the watersheds to adverse climatic conditions and consequently reduce their productivity. The bio productivity of two different ecosystems in four different land slopes using tomato as a test crop were evaluated in Amawbia southeast, Nigerian. An experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) were conducted on four slopes of the watershed, while complete randomized design (CRD) were used for the pot experiment carried out on the soil of the two management systems (managed and unmanaged ) and NPK at the rate of 150kg/ha with three replicates. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and significant mean differences were detected using the least significant difference (LSD). The findings from the study showed that plain (slope 4) recorded the highest value in the parameters assessed. Values increased as slope gradients decreased in both managed and unmanaged system as well as natural environment and NPK results. In managed plots, natural environment of the four slopes studied significantly increased growth and yield component of tomato than the unmanaged plots. Slope four (plain) of the unmanaged plots were found to have recorded statistically similar result with the managed plots in all the parameters assessed except for the plant height, stem girth and the dry weight of tomato respectively.
A Nexus between Poverty and Resource Dependency (Published)
Natural resources are essential for economic growth of a region by providing ecosystem services to the rich and poor equally. Natural resources are limited in nature which raise a question on their sustainability. The paper explicit that rich and poor both are dependent on resources but their purpose is different, rich people who are already financially strong even then they consume more resources in order to get more profits while due to the large size of family, poor directly depend on ecosystem services just for the sake of survival of livelihood. Finally, Paper concluded that the deteriorating relation of poverty and resource dependency reached out at imbalanced stage and became an inexplicable question of natural resource management. Some recommendation offered regrading nexus between poverty and resource dependency and asserts that a greater involvement of formal institutions can play an important role in bridging the gap between poverty and resources.
Oil Spill Incidents and Wetlands Loss in Niger Delta: Implication for Sustainable Development Goals (Published)
The implementation of a comprehensive founded sustainable development strategy, strengthened by careful management of oil and gas wealth, combined with an continuing exemplary for preservation of the natural environment, is an vital for the Niger Delta region. Oil spills have occurred over the year in the Niger Delta and wetland ecosystems has been degraded by the impact of the spills. Nigeria is showcasing an average of 11 Ramsar-listed coastal and freshwater wetlands, which together cover, 1 076 730 ha. Of these 11 sites, two are located in the Niger Delta region. The Niger delta Region of Nigeria is a wetland of its own covering about 76,000sq km and has the biggest mangrove forest wetlands ecosystem in Africa (11,134 sq km) and the third biggest in the world with its exceptional huge floodplain area in south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. National Oil Spill, Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) alerted with a recent aid through data acquisition in monitoring of oil spill from January 2013 to September 2014 reveals that there were 1,930 oil spill incidents in the core Niger Delta are primarily offshore incidence in wetlands ecosystem. Therefore oil spills occurred as a result of inadequate servicing and maintenance of the oil and gas facilities such as preventer blowout, wellhead, flow lines or pipelines, sabotage, accidental and equipment failures by the oil companies. The implementation of wise use concept of wetlands ecosystem as an approach, within the context of sustainable development goals as a centerpiece of modern efforts to manage wetlands will help the policy makers to integrate wetlands ecosystem to environmental planning to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
Environmental Geochemical studies on the effects of coal mining in Akwuke- Awkanawnaw, Enugu, and Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
Geochemical media such as water, soil, blackshales and plants were collected around Akwuke community in Awkanawnaw in Enugu area of southwestern Nigeria, and analysed for physicochemical parameters, inorganic ions /salts and heavy metal abundance. The ultimate goal was to investigate the geochemical environment and ascertain if the abandoned Okpara coal mine has any contamination effect on geoenvironment. The measured pH range of 3.98-4.42 renders the water as acidic to moderately acidic and consequently unsuitable drinking purposes, vegetation and aquatic life and wild life. Other physical and inorganic /organic parameters in water such as TDS, EC, Turbidity, TOC, total harness, Cl-, NO3, PO4, F, CN, Ca, Mg, Na and K all fall below recommended standard for potable water guidelines by WHO and EU and they do not portend any health threat to the end-users. Heavy metals results indicated that Fe comprise the most abundant metal in all the media except in plants where Zinc top the list. This is evidence that Fe is of main interest in all the media. It is only in soil sample s that the elements: Fe, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Ni exceed standards by US EPA for agricultural soils. This high concentration of potentially toxic metals in soils and acidic water condition constitute a threat to the ecosystem. Specifically, acidic and Fe polluted waters are not benign for fish growth and survival of aquatic biota. Also, acidic and ferruginous waters corrode borehole installation materials and produce iron stained water with characteristic reddish colour and offensive odour. Assessment of the comparative heavy metal abundance in water plants, soil and black shale revealed that there is more heavy metal enrichment loading in soil than other media. The hazard potential is that soils serve as a source that can release heavy metals into other media by various processes of remobilization.Therefore, phytoremediation can be adopted in the for heavy metal attenuation in soils.
Nigeria is highly endowed with a lot of biological resources of both plants and animal species. There have been many studies to document these biological resources in terms of quantity and location across the country. There had also been several efforts by the Nigerian government towards the conservation of these resources. However, this effort is not gaining the desired outcome, as the biological resources are constantly at the risk of depletion or even threatened with extinction. It was identified that lack of clear understanding of the ecological utility of these natural resources is the main reason for their abuse. This work is therefore an attempt to bring out the numerous uses and importance of biodiversity to the Nigerian ecosystem. It started with an overview of the biodiversity, then went ahead to review the causes of its depletion, before dwelling on the various utilities of the biodiversity in sustaining the ecosystem integrity of the Nigerian fragile environment. The impact of biodiversity in reversing the process of desertification was explained. Similarly, the role of biodiversity in water conservation, erosion management, soil fertility, food security and domestic energy were explained. The paper is hoped to serve as an advocacy tool for environmental conservation
The Relative Abundance of Floraspecies in the Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem of Boki Nigeria (Published)
This study was conducted with the view to analysing flora species abundance in the tropical rainforest ecosystem of Boki. Despite the spate of indiscriminate logging, this area still remains one of the few ecosystems that have been highly valued for its species diversity. Two forest formations the protected and the unprotected forest were used for the analysis. Six forest enclaves – Kanyang, Borum, Isobendeghe, Okwa I, Okwa II and Okwango were chosen for the study. Transects were laid from the centre of each forest enclave to the heart of the forest. Actual measurement of the quadrat started at a distance of 2km away from each enclave. A quadrat of 100m by 100m was demarcated for flora species identification and enumeration. The relative abundance was computed using the frequency of each species as percentage of the total species in the quadrat. The mean (x-) proportional abundance was computed to determine levels of flora species abundance. This was also complemented with the lognormal curve. Here, the number of flora species was plotted against individual species. The girth of each flora species was determined at breast height of 1.5m. The result of the analysis revealed that very few flora species were of low and high abundance whereas majority were in moderate abundance. Also majority of the trees in the area were in the category of 6-10 metre girth at breast height in the protected forest and 0-5 metre girth at breast height in the unprotected forest.