Tag Archives: ecosystem services

The Physical State Of Forest Cover and Land Use in Kenya: A Case of Nandi Hills Forests in Nandi County, Kenya (Published)

The Nandi Hills and Forests in the Nandi County are major water catchments for the Lake Victoria. However, these resources have faced significant decline and degradation in recent times, thereby impacting the hydrological quality and quantity in the Lake Victoria Basin. This study was informed by the observed degradation of the Nandi Hills and Nandi Forests, epitomized by the receding forest cover, drying up of previously permanent streams, instances of mudslides and rock falls, and downstream flooding. This paper sought to establish the state of and use of the Nandi Hills/Forests as water catchment area in Nandi County, Kenya. The study adopted a mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The mixed methodological approaches used in this study were the concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. The analysis covered three categories of the population in the study area; namely the households, institutions and community groups, and analysis of Landsat images for change detection. Analysis of the Landsat images revealed a grim state of the receding natural forest cover. However the uptake of on-farm forestry by the locals is seen as a potential remedy for the dwindling forest cover.

Keywords: Land Cover, Nandi Hills/ Forests, Water Catchment, Water towers., ecosystem services, land use

Approaching Twenty Five Years of the Convention on Biological Diversity: A Retrospective and Plea for Reinvigoration (Published)

The convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was agreed upon in UN conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992, as a response to the alarming and accelerating rate of extinction of world’s species and ecosystems. This convention had acquired ratification from approximately 197 parties. In pursuance to the CBD INDIA has enacted the biological Diversity Act in 2002 (took 10 years), and Biological Diversity Rules 2014, and formed Biological Diversity Committees.This review paper is an attempt to retrospect the achievements sought, the problems encountered in the implementation and the future course of actions required to be undertaken to meet the goals that originally motivated its creation.

 

Keywords: Biodiversity, CBD, ecosystem services

The Effects of Peri-Urbanization on Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (Published)

Although peri-urbanisation seems to be a driving force for city expansion in most cities of the developing world, the unguided nature and rapid rate of growth is increasingly raising a concern over the future sustainability of these cities. Peri-urbanization has been taking place at the expensive of rich agricultural hinterlands and depletion of natural resources. This type of urbanization culminates into conflict between natural resources conservation initiatives and human activities. This paper attempts to analyse the link between peri-urbanization processes and its effects on nearby forest reserves of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi in Dar es Salaam City. Empirical evidence for this paper was captured through analysis of aerial photographs covering a period between 1975 and 2012.  Household interviews covering a total of 150 households were administered in three settlements of Buyuni, Chanika and Masaki. Literature review, focus group discussions, resource mapping were also used to capture population dynamics, quantify types and trends of forest ecosystem services over the period of 37 years. Empirical evidence shows that; while built up area increased from 2.4 to 19.1 percent, overall closed forest decreased by 57 percent within the same period. The decrease in forest cover has been accompanied by the decline in forest ecosystem services namely, the decline in number and type of plant and animal species and drying of water sources. In view of these effects, it has been recommended that the government in collaboration with key stakeholders should engage in developing guidelines for managing peri-urbanization processes and creating community awareness for sustainable development and co-existence of urbanization processes and forest reserves.

Keywords: Dar es Salaam, Forest reserves, Peri-urbanization, Tanzania, ecosystem services

The Effects of Peri-Urbanization on Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (Published)

Although peri-urbanisation seems to be a driving force for city expansion in most cities of the developing world, the unguided nature and rapid rate of growth is increasingly raising a concern over the future sustainability of these cities. Peri-urbanization has been taking place at the expensive of rich agricultural hinterlands and depletion of natural resources. This type of urbanization culminates into conflict between natural resources conservation initiatives and human activities. This paper attempts to analyse the link between peri-urbanization processes and its effects on nearby forest reserves of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi in Dar es Salaam City. Empirical evidence for this paper was captured through analysis of aerial photographs covering a period between 1975 and 2012. Household interviews covering a total of 150 households were administered in three settlements of Buyuni, Chanika and Masaki. Literature review, focus group discussions, resource mapping were also used to capture population dynamics, quantify types and trends of forest ecosystem services over the period of 37 years. Empirical evidence shows that; while built up area increased from 2.4 to 19.1 percent, overall closed forest decreased by 57 percent within the same period. The decrease in forest cover has been accompanied by the decline in forest ecosystem services namely, the decline in number and type of plant and animal species and drying of water sources. In view of these effects, it has been recommended that the government in collaboration with key stakeholders should engage in developing guidelines for managing peri-urbanization processes and creating community awareness for sustainable development and co-existence of urbanization processes and forest reserves.

Keywords: Dar es Salaam, Forest reserves, Peri-urbanization, Tanzania, ecosystem services

THE PHYSICAL STATE OF FOREST COVER AND LAND USE IN KENYA- A CASE OF NANDI HILLS FORESTS IN NANDI COUNTY, KENYA (Published)

The Nandi Hills and Forests in the Nandi County are major water catchments for the Lake Victoria. However, these resources have faced significant decline and degradation in recent times, thereby impacting the hydrological quality and quantity in the Lake Victoria Basin. This study was informed by the observed degradation of the Nandi Hills and Nandi Forests, epitomized by the receding forest cover, drying up of previously permanent streams, instances of mudslides and rock falls, and downstream flooding. This paper sought to establish the state of and use of the Nandi Hills/Forests as water catchment area in Nandi County, Kenya. The study adopted a mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The mixed methodological approaches used in this study were the concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. The analysis covered three categories of the population in the study area; namely the households, institutions and community groups, and analysis of Landsat images for change detection. Analysis of the Landsat images revealed a grim state of the receding natural forest cover. However the uptake of on-farm forestry by the locals is seen as a potential remedy for the dwindling forest cover.

Keywords: Land Cover, Nandi Hills/ Forests, Water Catchment, Water towers., ecosystem services, land use