This study focuses on the religion and cultural practices of Ekwunekwune people in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, from 1940 to 2007. Christianity was introduced into the community in the 1940s when missionaries of the Church of Scotland Mission sailed from Calabar to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ in the area. Then the Church was vehemently resisted as an anti- cultural practice from the Western world. Despite that early resistance, Christianity has survived along side the culture of the people, resulting to a new social order where the foreign religion and the people’s culture co-exist without much differentiation and noticeable impact on the old ways of the people. In 2007, the democratic experiment in Nigeria under OlusegunObasanjo which saw an influx of changes in many parts of the country, ended without much effect on Ekwunekwune. The study stems from an interest in the many gods of the people and their several cultural practices and festivals. It is dependent on the primary sources of data,mostly derived through directoral accounts, due to the dearth of written documents on past events in the community. It is a qualitative study which uses the analytic and narrative approaches of history to present its findings. The study uses the Cause – Effect theory to question the relevance of some of the cultural practices in Ekwunekwune. The theory examines the causes of changes in a society and how the changes affect the social order of the people. The paper argues that a people’s culture, when it is change resistant, could result to stagnation of social developments, and eventually lead to their backwardness and underdevelopment.
An Appraisal Of The Dominant Causes Of Boundary Conflict Between Nigeria And Cameroun: The Bakassi Peninsula Perspective (Published)
This paper appraised the dominant causes of boundary conflict between Nigeria and Cameroun with reference to the Bakassi peninsula perspective. The realist theory was used as a framework of analysis. Data were derived from secondary sources and content analysis based on logical deduction and analysis of documents was adopted. The study found out that the dominant causes of the conflict include geographical and constitutional positions; colonial-legal sources, demographic, politico-strategic and economic issues. It further reveals that the Court resolutions on the conflict in favour of the Republic of Cameroun was informed by the colonial-legal sources, as such, it provoked reactions from various segments of the Nigerian public including Bakassi indigenous population, their paramount ruler, the Cross River State Youths Assembly and Nigerian Senate. But with the mediation of UN/Secretary General between the two countries’ presidents, Bakassi territory was officially handed over to the Camerounian Government. Hence, Cameroun-Nigeria Mixed Commission (CNMC) was established to finalized border demarcation between the two countries. Therefore, the study recommended among others that to further strengthening Nigeria-Cameroun relations: Both countries governments should desist from neglecting border areas, but encourage infrastructural developments, effectively occupying of border areas to avoid future incursions; Both countries governments should strictly abide by all diplomatic notes and agreements they have or will exchange between each other now and in future; Be committed to Organization of African Unity (OAU) declaration, which stipulates that independent African countries were bound to respect inherited colonial borders; that as both countries have recognized unprofitable nature of armed conflict and ceased fire, CNMC should be a permanent structure where problems arising from the management of the disputed areas be debated and resolved. However, the paper concluded that both countries should take advantage of conflict resolution to explore possible areas of cross-border collaboration and described peaceful conflict resolution by both countries, a model for all nationals fighting over conflicting interest(s).