Effect of Vegetable Exports on Nigeria’s Economy (Published)
Nigeria’s heavy dependence on crude oil has rendered its economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world crude prices hence the intense prospect for exportation of cultivable vegetables to the global market in pursuant to the compelling need for Nigeria to diversify its economy. This study investigates the effect of vegetable exports on Nigeria’s economy from 1988 to 2018 with the new growth theory as its theoretical framework. Time series data were sourced from World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS), World Development Indication (WDI) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical bulletin. The autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds testing technique and the error correction model were adopted for the study. Our results show that although the coefficient for vegetable exports was negative, it significantly impacted on Nigeria’s economic growth. More so, total agricultural exports had positive impact on economic growth. On this basis, we recommend that Nigeria should revisit its exports composition and pattern regarding all vegetable products and provide quality inputs so as to improve the quality and consistency in supply of vegetable exportables to the world market.
Citation: Ebele S. Nwokoye, Ekwutosi V. Ojukwu, Christopher U. Kalu, Amaka G. Metu (2021) Effect of Vegetable Exports on Nigeria’s Economy, International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, Vol.9, No.2, pp.23-38,
Comparative Analysis of Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Performance of Akwa Ibom and Cross River State in Nigeria (Published)
This paper analysed the impact of fiscal decentralization on economic growth of Cross river state and Akwa Ibom state in Nigeria using secondary data from joint task board, Revenue Allocation board and national bureau of statistics (NBS) from 2005-2020. The Study adopts SURE model method of Estimation to analyse the results. Finding from the study revealed that Federal Allocation, Internally generated Revenue, Fiscal Autonomy and Population decentralization in Nigeria influences economic growth in Cross river state and Akwa Ibom state. The theoretical expectation that decentralization would improve the economic performance of the selected states in south-south through proximity and regional competition seem not to be found in the study. The flow of fiscal decentralization in Cross river state and Akwa Ibom state in Nigeria seem to follow inefficient application of resources by the political class with increased cost of governance rather than ensuring cost effectiveness in the provision of public services. Therefore, findings from the study revealed that population growth and internally generated revenue are the major determinants of Economic growth in Cross river state while Fiscal Autonomy and Federal allocation contributes infinitesimal to economic growth but not the major determinants of Economic growth in Cross river state. Also findings from the study revealed that Internally generated revenue and Federal allocation are the major determinants of Economic growth in Akwa ibom state while Fiscal Autonomy and population growth contributes infinitesimal but not the major determinant of Economic growth in Akwa ibom state. Therefore the study suggests key Economic reforms to improve transparency and accountability in all sectors of the economic as well as good governance in order to make fiscal decentralization a catalyst for economic growth in Cross river state and Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria. The study also recommends that Policy measures must be put in place to grow the economy using monetary and fiscal policy mix reaction to ensure macroeconomic stability and realisation of macroeconomic goals of economic growth, price stability, low unemployment and balance of payment of states in Nigeria.
Over the years, the Nigerian financial sector has been characterized by relative fragility and instability with intermittent incidences of liquidity challenges, bank distress, bail out, declining all share index and eroding investors’ confidence. Although several efforts have been made by policy makers and financial sector regulators towards stabilizing and strengthening the financial sector, available evidence suggest that the real sector is yet to reflect the gains of financial sector development. Consequently, researchers have made substantial effort to understand the implication of financial sector development for economic growth and economic welfare. It is against this backdrop that this study investigated the impact of financial sector development on economic and economic welfare. The study used time series data spanning between 1970 and 2015. Four major variables were used to proxy financial sector development namely; bank private sector credit, number of banks branch network, liquidity ratio and lending-deposits ratio. Economic growth was measured by growth of real GDP; discomfort index which measures macroeconomic welfare of citizenry as defined by Okun (1962) was computed by summation of inflation and unemployment rate. Vector autoregressive (VAR) model was used for estimations. The findings indicate that not all the financial sector development indicators under study have significant effect on macroeconomic performance in Nigeria. The results show that financial sector development indicators have positive impact on real GDP growth in Nigeria. However, contrary to expectations, private sector credit and lending – deposit spread had negative effects on economic growth. Similarly, apart from access to financial service, all other financial sector development indicators under study exerted negative effects on discomfort index, which implied that financial sector development was capable of improving economic welfare. The study therefore concluded that financial sector development that guarantees increased liquidity and stability of the financial sector is crucial for sustainable economic growth and increased welfare. The study also recommends that the Central Bank of Nigeria and other financial sector regulators should strive to strengthen the financial sector and ensure increased private sector access to financial services such as bank credit through policy formulation and implementation as a means of improving macroeconomic performance of the nation.
The paper aims to establish a long-run and causal relationship between economic growth, CO2 emissions, international trade, energy consumption, and population density in Malaysia. The study will use annual data from 1970 to 2014. A unique cointegrating relationship between our variables was identified, and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was analyzed using the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. Our empirical results suggest the existence of a long-run relationship between per capita CO2 emissions and our explanatory variables. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) methodology was used to analyze the Granger Causality, and the results show the absence of causality between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the short-run while demonstrating uni-directional causality from economic growth to CO2 emissions in the long-run.
This research focuses on the impact of Foreign Direct Investment and Portfolio Flows on Economic growth in Nigeria. The research covers the period between 1980 and 2018. Secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and various issues of World Bank Publications as well as Nigerian Bureau of Statistics (NBS) The period being understudied encompasses the period of massive government efforts to attract foreign investors into the country as well as period of turbulent macroeconomic indicators such as high unemployment and low level of per capita income in Nigeria. The parsimonious Error Correction Modelling (ECM) result shows that Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Portfolio Investment, Labour force and Gross Fixed Capital Formation have a positive and significant impact on the level of Economic Growth in Nigeria. The Johanson cointegration test result shows a long-run relationship among Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Portfolio Investment, Labour Force, Gross Fixed Capital Formation in Nigeria. The result from the variance decomposition reveals that shocks to Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Portfolio Investment, and Labour Force and Gross Fixed Capital formation did not explain a significant proportion of the changes in economic growth in Nigeria within the period of the study. It was recommended that government should put in place policies to encourage foreign investors to go into the agricultural and manufacturing sectors which are key to job creation and for sustainable economic growth.
An Evaluation of the Impact of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) Development on Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)
This study evaluated the impact of small and medium enterprises development on economic growth in Nigeria. The study used aggregate asset base and aggregate capitalization of SMEs as the independent variables, while gross domestic product (proxy for economic growth) was adopted as the dependent variable. Secondary time series data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin 2018, National Bureau of Statistics 2018, and National Survey of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) 2013 & 2017 conducted by the Small & Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) for the period 2000 to 2018. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis based on the OLS technique (with the aid of SPSS version 19) were employed as methods for data analysis. The findings show that the aggregate asset base and aggregate capitalization of SMEs have little or no significant effect on the GDP. It was also discovered that there exists a long-run relationship among the variables even though the overall regression model was not statistically significant at 5%. It was recommended amongst others that more efforts should be put in place by Government to gather enough information on SMEs through the responsible. The Federal and /State Ministries of Industry in collaboration with SMEDAN should work out strategies for reporting the operations of SMEs in Nigeria, highlighting the asset base and aggregate capitalization of the sector and put in places policies to resuscitate the sector.
Foreign Direct Investment, Remittances and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Do these inflows stimulate Growth? (Published)
The effect of international inflow of capital on economic growth has generated a lot of argument and debate over time. Some concluded that capital inflow does not matter and in effect cannot stimulate the desired growth while others believed it does matter in promoting the key macro-economic variables such as the reduction in unemployment and poverty, price stability, industrialization just to mention a few. Hence, this study was set out to investigate the effect of Foreign Direct Investment and Remittances on economic growth in Nigeria. The study adopted other explanatory variables and data were sourced from the World Development Indicator and Central Bank of Nigeria spanning from 1980 to 2019 and Ordinary Least Square was used to analyze the data after it has been subjected to unit root stationary test. The study found that Foreign Direct Investment has a negative relationship with economic growth and Remittances seem to have a positive effect on economic growth. The study, therefore, concluded that FDI does not stimulate desired growth while remittances promote growth in Nigeria. In the light of these findings, the study, therefore, recommended that government should remove impediments discouraging investment policies that will stimulate the use of FDI in the country. The Nigeria government should also encourage inflow and monitoring of remittances through financial institutions to enable them to have adequate data on this inflow to gear it into the growth process.
The study set out to investigate the effect of external debt on Nigerian economy. Time series data for twenty-two years that span from 1994 to 2015 were obtained and subjected to test using Ordinary least square regression (OLS) for the hypotheses formulated for the study. The study revealed some forms of long run relationship between Gross domestic product, on the one part and external debt, external debt service and export, on the other part but of particular importance is the long run marginal negative relationship between external debt and Gross domestic product. The study further confirmed causality, from predictors to dependent variable and recommended that there should be a ban on external debt in Nigeria, for some time. However, where external debt is unavoidably necessary for productive venture/investment that can boost export, it should be for such specific venture/investment and should be well managed to pay back the external debt and its associated service cost, thereby justifying the decision for such external debt without further stress on the economy.
This study investigates the effect of bank lending management on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1985-2018. The data for the study were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Bulletins, World Development Indicator and National Bureau of Statistics. The variables for the study include Gross Domestic Product, Deposit Interest Rate, Lending Interest Rate, Bank Asset Quality and Deposit Multiplier. Data for the study was analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, Ordinary Least Square method (OLS) and Multiple Regression Analysis. The result of short and long run regression revealed a negative impact of bank lending management on economic growth. The F-statistic (6.67) was also used to test explanatory power of the model with the corresponding probability value of (0.0007) which is statistically significant at 5%, suggesting that the explanatory variables have joint and significant effect on the economic growth of Nigeria. It is recommended that the regulatory authority set up a regulatory framework that will enhance the capacity of deposit money banks in Nigeria to lend to real sector of the economy at a very low interest rate and attract massive deposit by investors through robust deposit interest rate.
As society grows, its increasing social demand is also when large resources are being lost, as well as the price for growing. The balance between the two economic and environmental benefits recently has been constantly mentioned as a difficult problem for any country. This research points to the growing conflict between economic development and environmental protection, how to balance economic benefits with environmental protection, and propose solutions to both economic development and environmental protection.
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the influence of tax revenue on economic development of Nigeria. The specific objectives are; to determine the influence of petroleum profit tax, company income tax and value added tax on economic development proxy by human development index (HDI). Annual time series data, from CBN and FIRS from 1997 to 2018 was used. The study used regression analysis. The result showed that petroleum profit tax and company income tax have significant effect on economic development while value added tax does not significantly influence economic development. The implication of the finding is that the higher the amount of tax revenue generated, the higher the level of economic development experienced by the economy. This implies that taxes that have positive effect on economic development are direct taxes, thus direct taxes exert more significant influence on economic development of Nigeria than indirect taxes. This anomaly was attributed to dysfunctional ties in tax system, loopholes in tax law and inefficient tax administration. The lower the amount of revenue generated from tax the lower the quality of development to be witnessed. Government will generate higher revenue if they strengthen the legal and regulatory framework in order to control tax evasion and tax avoidance by taxpayers, improve on the system of tax administration, .The paper therefore recommended that tax policy makers such as federal inland revenue services and other tax regulatory bodies should strengthen their regulation on tax compliance mostly on tax that are direct based to curb tax evasion and tax avoidance by tax payers, adopt strategies to improve system of tax administration, by training and re- training of tax administrators through seminars and conferences to be abreast of modern trend in tax administration in order to generate more income for development.
The main objective of the study is to investigate the effect of cashless policy on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria (2009-2018). The specific objectives are to: Investigate the effect of automated teller machine, examine the effect of point of sale, assess the effect of mobile banking, and to examine the effect of internet banking respectively on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. We employed Econometric techniques involving Descriptive Statistics, Augmented Dicker Fuller and Philip Perron Tests for Unit Roots and the Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) for cointegration and coefficient analysis. The result of the study indicates that Automated Teller Machine (ATM) and Internet Banking each has a positive and significant effect on return on equity (ROE). Point of Sale (POS) has a positive but insignificant effect on return on equity, while Mobile Banking (MB has a negative and statistically significant effect on ROE, The study thus concludes that cashless policy has positively affected the performance of money deposit banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should provide uninterrupted power supply and adequate communication link while shortfalls should be covered by banks through back-up arrangement to power standby generator in case of power outage.
Analysis of the Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Manufacturing performance in Nigeria (1981 – 2018) (Published)
Theoretically, and indeed empirically it has been postulated that Exchange Rate fluctuations has had a significant effect on manufacturing performance in terms of output growth and contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This study aimed to examine the Exchange Rate fluctuations on manufacturing performance in Nigeria over a period of 37 years (from 1981-2018), using annual data obtained from collected from CBN, NBS and Index Mundi Nigeria. An ARDL approach was used for the analysis. The empirical results of the study shows that an exchange rate volatility has negatively affect the performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector as can be seen from the from the respective coefficients of the estimated variables, , the long run relationship analysis and the causal relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study recommends encouraging and improving exchange rate stability in Nigeria as this may help improve the capacity of the country’s manufacturing sector, hence expand its contribution to GDP growth.
This study aims at investigating the relevance of tax revenue in driving economic growth in emerging market economy context. . Using data extracted from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin for various years and auto-regression estimation model, our study documents the existence of significant and positive relationship between petroleum profit taxes (PPT), Company Income Tax (CIT) on economic growth in Nigeria. Our findings further reveal that Value Added Tax (VAT) and Custom –excise duty (CED) exert negative influence on economic growth. However, the study provide evidence that VAT and CED are insignificant in determining the economic growth in emerging market economy context with special interest in Nigeria This study provide further evidence that the higher the amount of tax revenue generated, the higher the level of economic growth in the economy. There is a recommendation therefore that strong institutional reforms are panacea to prevent leakages of revenue from VAT and CED.
Over the years Nigeria has experienced downward slope in its productivity and economic growth. This is evident in the country’s inability to deliver on national plan, high rate of unemployment, poor road networks, low quality education and low standards of living. In all these, studies have shown low and unsteady revenue generation in the country. This study investigated tax revenue volatility on economic growth in Nigeria, using inflation and exchange rates as moderating variables. This study adopted ex post facto research design. Data were obtained from certified sources; namely, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Federal Inland Revenue Services for the 1981Q1-2017Q4, amounting to one hundred and eight (108) observations. Data were exposed to the scrutiny of the appropriate regulatory agencies for validity and reliability. Pre-estimation tests were conducted using Pearson correlation and stationarity tests. The post-estimation tests included linearity, Heteroskedasticity, Breusch-Godfrey serial Correlation Lagrangian Multiplier and stability test. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that tax revenue volatility moderated by inflation rate and exchange rate had significant effect on economic growth (EG) in Nigeria (Adj. R2 =0.6, F (3, 105) =2140.285, p <0.05; β1 = 0.219). This study concluded that tax revenue volatility affects economic growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should formulate tax policies that will encourage steady tax revenue. In addition, government should ensure prudent application of tax fund to the development of infrastructure that would translate into economic growth.
Nigeria has experienced downward slope in its productivity and economic growth. This affects the macroeconomic environment as it is evident that the country has challenges in fixing their roads, challenging in achieving national plan, high rate of unemployment, low quality education and low standards of living. In all these, studies have implicated low and unsteady revenue generation in the country. This study investigated petroleum profit tax volatility on economic growth in Nigeria, using inflation and exchange rates as moderating variables. This study adopted ex post facto research design. Data were obtained from certified sources; namely, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Federal Inland Revenue Services for the 1981Q1-2017Q4, amounting to one hundred and eight (108) observations. Data were exposed to the scrutiny of the appropriate regulatory agencies for validity and reliability. Pre-estimation tests were conducted using Pearson correlation and stationarity tests. The post-estimation tests included linearity, Heteroskedasticity, Breusch-Godfrey serial Correlation Lagrangian Multiplier and stability test. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that Petroleum profit tax volatility had positive and significant effect on EG in Nigeria (R2 = 0.56, β1 = 0.422, t(107) = 6.927, p<0.05). This study concluded that Petroleum profit tax volatility affects economic growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should formulate tax policies that will encourage steady tax revenue. In addition, government should ensure prudent application of tax fund to the development of infrastructure that would translate into economic growth
Causal Relationship between Financial Structure and Economic Growth in Contemporary African Economy: A Case Study of Nigeria from 1990-2018 (Published)
This study examined financial structure and economic growth of contemporary African economies; evidence from Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of financial structure in bank credit to the private sector ratio (BC), market capitalization ratio (MC), liquid liability ratio (LLR), turnover ratio (TR) and value of traded share (VTS) on economic growth variable in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The study was anchored on bank based and market-based theory. The study used secondary data obtained from World Bank Data Atlas and subjected them to Granger Causality technique to test the interaction between independent variables and the dependent variable at the 5% level of significance. The findings show that financial structure in BC, MC, LLR, TR and VTS had no significant effect on GDP in the contemporary African economies. The result further discovered that there was absence of long run relationship in the study. Thus, the study concludes that financial structure does not have significant effect on economic growth in the contemporary African economies. Hence, the study recommends that financial structure should strengthen and enhance availability of money supply to key sector of the economy thereby improving economic growth by ensuring financial deepening within the economies and providing viable economic environment for financial enhancement to boost investment activities within the Nigerian economy.
An Empirical Evaluation of the Effect of Foreign Investment Inflows on Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the effect of foreign investment inflows on economic growth of Nigeria, using secondary data for the period 2001 to 2018. The study adopted gross domestic product as the indicator of economic growth and the dependent variable, while foreign direct investment, foreign portfolio investment and exchange rate were used as explanatory variables. The data on the study variables covering the period 2001 to 2018 were collected from the CBN Statistical Bulletin. The study employed descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis technique based on the E-view computer software for analyzing data. The results of analysis revealed that foreign direct investment, foreign portfolio investment and exchange rate had significant positive influence on gross domestic product. Based on the results of the empirical analysis, the study concluded that foreign investment inflows have made the desired positive impact on the growth of the Nigerian economy. However, a lot still need to be done to create conducive investment climate to attract sufficient amount of foreign investors into the productive sectors of the Nigerian economy. The study recommended that the regulatory authorities should formulate policies and create the enabling environment to attract foreign investments into Nigeria.
Education and Economic Growth in South Asia (Published)
Interconnection between education and economic growth is a subject of great interest in most developing nations in the world today. This is because economic growth is one of the key indicators of the level of national development. In this study, regression analysis is applied to look into the genuine effects and the relationship between education and economic growth of the Southern Asian Countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Maldives, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The methodology consists of the means of estimation and econometric analysis which help to determine the actual quantitative effects of education in economic growth especially in South Asian nations. By this, an affirmation of the relationship between the two variables can be made due to enough evidence obtained in this study.
The paper evaluates tertiary school enrolment in Nigeria: Implication for national development. The main aim of the paper is to assess the effect of tertiary school enrolment on economic growth in Nigeria. It is equally discovered that while tertiary enrolment is nominally increasing, in real terms, it is abysmally nose-diving. The analyses used for the study include the Ordinary Least Square estimation techniques, unit root test, co-integration test and the variance decomposition test to analyze the empirical model of the study. The findings of the empirical investigation confirm that tertiary enrolment is veritable tools through which appreciable economic growth can be enhanced in Nigeria. The study equally observed that tertiary school enrolment and government recurrent expenditures are statistically significant in explaining growth in the Nigerian economy. The paper therefore recommends among others that government should as a matter of urgency give immediate employment to all NCE graduate, this will encourage and increase the number of people seeking enrolment in the colleges