Effects of Flooding On Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-Ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria (Published)
The study focused on the Effects of Flooding on Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria, for proper soil and flood management to avert soil degradation. Soil samples were collected from three different floodplains and from arable land at the middle of the stream as control at the depth of 0-30cm, and were used for the determination of the selected soil quality. The treatments were replicated five times and data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance for complete randomized (CRD). All the soil properties assessed were significantly different (p<0.05) among the study locations. The results further showed that apart from sand, BD, gravimetric moisture that were higher in control, silt, clay and porosity were recorded highest mean values than control. Mean pH in floodplains recorded mean value of 5.9 being acidic than control with the mean of pH5.38. Also apart from Avail.P(38.50ppm),OC(1.89cmol/kg), Nitrogen (0.15cmol/kg), ECEC(18.16%) and BS(89.65%) being higher in control than floodplains, the mean of OM (2.5cmol/kg), Ca (10.5cmol/kg), Mg(4.7cmol/kg),K(0.14cmol/kg), Na(1.06cmol/kg) and EA(2.07) were higher in floodplains than control, which could support farming during flood cessation for increased food productions. Based on the results, it is recommended that flood best management practice should be encouraged in order to retain soil nutrients, reduce soil and water pollutions for ecosystem sustainability.
Trend Analysis of Maize Production in Lesotho and Its Distribution among the Ecological Zones (Published)
Maize is the major staple crop in Lesotho as evidenced by production and consumption levels. Speculation showed that maize production and area planted is declining dramatically and no appropriate analytical tools have been employed to verify this. The objectives of this study were; (1) to determine the trend of maize production, area planted and yield using time-series data (2) to determine distribution of maize by production and area among ecological zones. Time series data from 1961 to 2013 on maize production, area and yield were collected from FAOSTAT (2015). Data on ecological zones were obtained from Bureau of Statistics in Lesotho (2014). Genstat software was employed for trend analysis using time series function and ANOVA was to establish differences in maize production among ecological zones of Lesotho. The results revealed that trendline for maize production had declined from 107,000 in 1961 to 94,000 tons in 2013. Production and area curves appeared cyclical. Trendline for area planted maize for 54 years was constant from 1961 to 2013. Yield trendline was constant at 860 kg ha-1. Maize production in the lowland was the highest, followed by Foothills, Mountain and Orange river zone. There is a potential for Lesotho to increase maize production by mainly increasing yield.