Effects of Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum as Biopreservative against Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) Infested Rice Grains (Published)
The effect of Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum against adult rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) was conducted using dried powdered bulbs and rhizomes of garlic and ginger to ascertain its effectiveness in preservation of stored rice grains. The samples include ginger treated rice grains, garlic treated rice grains, and ginger and garlic treated rice grains at concentrations of 2g, 4g and 6g of the powdered experimental plant materials. The ginger and garlic treated rice grains was prepared at the ratio of 50%Zo : 50%As and the control sample was preserved without treatment. Mortality rate of adult S. oryzae was determined daily for a period of 21 days and compared with the control. The results shows that mean mortality of adult S. oryzae treated with two plant powders (Z. officinale and A. sativum) at various concentrations ranged from 1.22±1.093 to 1.44±0.882, 1.56±0.726 to 2.56±1.014 and 1.56±0.726 to 2.22±1.481 for ginger treated rice grains, garlic treated rice grains, and ginger and garlic treated rice grains, respectively. The lethal effect at 7 days interval was also determined and the result revealed that the mortality was highest at 21 days and least at 7 days of post treatment for Z. officinale; while A. sativum treated sample revealed that the mortality effect of was highest at 7 and 21 days and least at 14 days of post treatment. When the lethal effect was compared, A. sativum powder caused higher mortality of adult S. oryzae than Z. officinale. These results suggest that these plants are suitable for possible exploitation in protecting stored rice from damage by storage insects.
In today’s Architectural practice, there is a struggle to find the ways to balance or harmonize environmental technology, protection of resources and aesthetic content. And the world has witnessed some level of significant industrial and technological revolution. The revolution, despite its acclaimed benefits to humanity has resulted to a worrisome level of interaction with our environment. . One point of a great concern, with regard to the eco-system, is that as the global greenhouse gas level continue to rise, the planet’s temperature with corresponding rise, resulting in the melting of the ice caps and seriously altering global weather conditions. Current estimates calculate that the world built environment account for approximately one third of all global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whilst consuming 40% of the world’s energy. However, the challenge facing environmental architecture is meting the increasing demand for revolutionary architectural solutions while mitigating its impact on the eco-system. The aim of this paper therefore, is to critically review current ecologic design concept/environmental technology using secondary and primary data. The effect of the built environment on the co-system which has resulted in consistent rise in global temperature in the past three decades was accessed. The paper recommends adopting more eco-friendly design approach, passive design methods and use of renewable energy source amongst others as key for achieving eco-friendly building. Finally we conclude that moving from a sectional prism of viewing environmentalism largely driven by sectional issues involving pollution, resources and biodiversity to a more holistic view point that recognizes the inherent interdependence of all life systems is the right way forward and we therefore call on Architects to embrace it.