This report tends to focus on human-animal relationship by discussing how subversively the protagonist, David Lurie’s attitude toward animals changes, and how his attitude reflects life and ecological philosophy in Disgrace, which presents the chaos and complicated phenomena in South Africa society involving male-female, father-daughter, white-black, city-country, and human-animal relationship. Referring to life philosophy, there is no option but submission in living beings’ route to death. In other words, there is no apparent difference between the existence of animals and human beings especially when facing formidable or unavoidable external forces. Through writing materials concerning animals as creatures abjectly suffering from pain, captivity and death at the hands of humans, Coetzee provides readers space to imagine how animal beings might feel at the moment of torture instead of delectation. However, transition of David’s attitude toward animals from indifference to solicitude, and from solicitude to euthanasia elucidates how animal living and dying could be looked upon in human society and logic of ethic.
REALISATION OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MSGs): WHAT ROLE FOR NIGERIAN AND AFRICAN LITERATUR (Review Completed - Accepted)
This article clearly defines the terms of the Millennium Development Goals and the roles literature should play in the realisation of the vision. In its view, literature has existing structures prior to the launch of the programme by the United Nations in 2000 and which the objectives can conveniently fit into. These structures comprise political criticism, feminist criticism, eco-criticism or environmental literature and utopian or futuristic literature. Through political criticism, the world can entrench good governance which in turn will eradicate poverty as well as guarantee Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), better health care or find remedies to diseases. The paper goes ahead to argue that feminist criticism in literature has got the capacity to sensitise the world on gender equality and other gender issues by presenting highly educated and empowered women as characters in literary works. Eco-criticism alerts us on the danger of environmental degradation while utopian literature has the sheer force of catapulting us to an ethereal world where we will forget the present anomy and give a breaststroke thrust to the future. These are the concrete facts the paper discusses. It concludes by stating that as the mandate of MDGs supposedly ends in 2015, literature could continue the good work it has been doing for mankind before the advent of the Millennium Development Goals.
One significant beauty of literature is the openness of this academic discipline. It permits sensible endless debate on issues with a view to reconciling them and to bring out the best from the divided opinions for ultimate use of the most enduring and outstanding perspective from among many. Even before now that world has turned a global village; the geography of our existence allows us to tell our stories because man is heavily connected to his environment. Our culture and all our material creations including literature are therefore reflections of our ecological existence. This paper examines J. P. Clark’s “Night Rain” as a product of the relationship between literature and the environment, and the representation of nature, which make up the environment in a literary work. With the application of Eco-criticism as our theoretical framework, the paper concludes that our lives are not meaningful except they are situated in the cultural context of our environment. Hence, the study and understanding of culture in relation to the environment through literature will help us in solving the challenges of the 21st century.