Tag Archives: Ebonyi State

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Local Clay from Ebonyi State, Nigeria as a Substitute for Bentonite in Drilling Fluids (Published)

The present consumption of bentonite in the drilling operations in Nigeria alone is over 50 thousand tons per year and it is imported from abroad This trend is expected to continue as drilling activities keep increasing. The large consumption and the high importation cost of this material led to an attempt to find a local substitute.  This work focuses on the possibility of utilization of local clay as a basic material for drilling fluids. This research evaluates, by means of simple but relevant laboratory tests, the properties of clay deposit from ishiagu-ivo local government area of Ebonyi state, southeastern Nigeria and compared with imported bentonite. The results were analyzed using statistical and graphical methods.Water-based mud was formulated from the local clay and the properties were determined and compared with those of imported bentonite. The results obtained showed that there were significant differences in the formulated drilling fluid’s rheological properties and the pH when compared with that of imported bentonite. When beneficiated with soda ash ( CO₃) and PacR at a concentration of 5.0g and 50g respectively to 350mL of the local mud, the mud pH  increased from 5.65 to 10.60 while the apparent viscosity, yield point and plastic viscosity increased from 4.50, 4.00, 3.00 to 11.10, 10.00 and 7.00 respectively. With the addition of barite (BaS ) (10g) to 350mL of the formulated drilling fluid, the density increased from 8.80lb/gal to 9.15lb/gal. Therefore, at considerable concentration, the ishiagu-ivo clay exhibits good rheological properties that could compete favourably with that of imported bentonite when beneficiated with soda ash ( CO₃), potassium chloride and Pac R. This goes to show that a quality drilling fluid could be formulated from ishiagu-ivo clay that could meet the API specification.

Keywords: Bentonite, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, drilling fluids, local clay

Tourism Potential of Onicha Igboeze Community New Yam Festival, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to assess tourism potential of Onicha Igboeze community New Yam Festival. Six (6) villages, 12 key informants and 60 ordinary residents were selected for the study through multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Primary data were collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaire, interview schedules and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary information was sourced from historic records and documentaries on the subject matter. Data were analyzed using mean scores from 4-point Likert-Type scale and Explanatory Factor Analysis. Historical and other descriptive information were presented in documentary form. Results showed that the interplay of the rural ambience of Onitcha Igboeze community, the recreational content and structure of her New Yam Festival, and the community’s positive socio-cultural values provide adequate response to recreational needs of a modern urbanized society. It was recommended that community leadership in conjunction with the State ministry of tourism should work to promote the festival as a premium tourism product.

Keywords: Ebonyi State, New Yam Festival, Nigeria, Onitcha Igboeze Community, Rural tourism, Tourism potential

Evaluation of Learning Outcomes of Primary School Pupils in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

This research study which focused on Evaluation of  Learning Outcomes for both Public and Private Primary School pupils in Ebonyi State Nigeria, adopted a descriptive survey design. The sample size for the study was 3,041 pupils and was restricted to primary four (4) pupils, made up of 1503 males and 1538 females. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Instrument for data collection was 110 test items developed by the researchers in the areas of Numeracy, Literacy and Life-skills .The instrument was given to the Experts for face and construct validity and was finally subjected to a reliability test, using  Kudar-Richardson formula 20(K-R 20) which yielded a reliability co-efficient of 0.78. The test instruments were administered to the pupils with the help of research Assistants. Mean, Standard deviation and Percentage were used to answer the research questions while t-test and Chi-square (x2) Statisticts were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the of the findings revealed that both male and female primary 4 pupils are very poor and have very low competencies in Numeracy, literacy and Life skills. It is therefore recommended that the Federal Government of Nigeria should mount training and retraining programmes for the teachers on the method teaching the pupils Mathematics, English language and Life skills, in addition to supply of  adequate textbooks. Also, supervision Team to monitor classroom teaching and learning should be set up among recommendations

Keywords: Ebonyi State, Evaluation of Learning Outcomes, Learning Outcomes, Nigeria, Primary School

Ecotourism Potential of Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Assessing Ecological Sites, Cultural Resources and Attitudes of Host-Communities (Published)

This study was undertaken to assess ecotourism potential of Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Twenty-four (24) ecological sites across the 3 ecological zones of the State and the local communities were purposively selected for the study. Twenty (20) community opinion leaders were purposively selected from each local community making 300 respondents. Focus Group Discussions were also held among various groups of adult males, females and youths. Primary data were collected by the use of interview schedule while secondary data were sourced from publications of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Ebonyi State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy. Data were analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics including mean scores from 4-point Likert-type scales and probit analysis. Result shows that ecological attractions in the State range from salt and fresh water lakes to beaches, waterfalls, hills, rock formations, caves and forests. There are also 20 identifiable fun-filled festivals celebrated all year round in the State. Furthermore, the socio-cultural environments of host communities were found to be supportive of ecotourism development and various host communities were willing to cooperate to develop ecotourism cluster. Governments at state and local levels are advised to ensure availability and functionality of socio-economic infrastructure in host communities. NGOs and Community Development Associations (CDAs) should strengthen advocacy to dismantle some cultural barriers that tend to exclude women from participation in some aspects of ecotourism development.

Keywords: Cultural festivals, Ebonyi State, Ecological sites, Ecotourism, Host-communities, Nigeria

Perceived Contributory Motivational Factors to Teachers’ Effective Job Performance in Secondary Schools in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State (Published)

The study was focused on examining perceived contributory motivational factors to teachers’ effective job performance in Secondary Schools in Afikpo Education Zone. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study covered all the five Local government areas in the zone, which consists of (43) public schools with all the teachers totaling two hundred and sixty-five (265). The selection of sample was first done in clusters, based on the 5 local government areas under the zone. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 5 schools from each cluster, (2) under urban and (3) under rural areas, making a total of (10) and (15) urban and rural public secondary schools respectively. With the use of proportionate sampling technique a total of (125) teachers were selected for sampling, (50) from urban and (75) from rural areas. The gender composition from the total sample size of 125 consists of (29) female and (96) male teachers respectively. The instrument for data collection was a self developed instrument questionnaire titled, “Perceived influence of Teachers’ motivation on teachers’ job performance in Secondary Schools in Afikpo Education Zone (PTMTJP)”. The instrument was given face validation and corrections were incorporated adopted as final version of the instrument. The Cronbach’s alpha was used to calculate the index, which gave a reliability of co-efficient of 0.67 which showed that it was usable. Descriptive statistical tools; mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels of significance. Results showed that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational related factors influence job performance of teachers. However, low public opinion on teaching profession as well as non-material rewards were not accepted as significant teachers’ intrinsic motivational factors for job performance. Recommendations showed that government needs to improve on teachers’ material need while administrators need to adopt more human relation approach to school governance among others.

Keywords: Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State, Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivational Needs, Job Performance, Secondary Schools, Teachers’ Motivation

Teachers’ Motivation for Effective Implementation of the National Language Policy in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the teachers motivation for effective implementation of the national language policy in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A random sample of 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of this number, 594 copies of the questionnaire, representing about 98.8% return rate, were used for data analysis. Mean and standard deviations were used to describe the teachers’ motivation for effective implementation of the national language policy. Results showed that the respondents would be encouraged to teach effectively if incentives are provided for them to a great extent except in items 1 and 2 that indicates very great extent with the mean of = 3.03 and = 3.03 respectively. The results of the study showed that non-payment of special language teachers allowances, non-placement of teachers on special salary scale, no provision of books and other relevant materials (free of charge) lack of regular training to update the teachers’ knowledge and lack of sponsorship to attend language seminars and workshops by the teachers. The study supports the need for government to provide incentives in form of allowances and special salary scale for Nigerian language teachers in the field.

Keywords: Ebonyi State, Implementation teachers, Motivation

Tourism Potential of Onicha Igboeze Community New Yam Festival, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to assess tourism potential of Onicha Igboeze community New Yam Festival. Six (6) villages, 12 key informants and 60 ordinary residents were selected for the study through multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Primary data were collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaire, interview schedules and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary information was sourced from historic records and documentaries on the subject matter. Data were analyzed using mean scores from 4-point Likert-Type scale and Explanatory Factor Analysis. Historical and other descriptive information were presented in documentary form. Results showed that the interplay of the rural ambience of Onitcha Igboeze community, the recreational content and structure of her New Yam Festival, and the community’s positive socio-cultural values provide adequate response to recreational needs of a modern urbanized society. It was recommended that community leadership in conjunction with the State ministry of tourism should work to promote the festival as a premium tourism product.

Keywords: Ebonyi State, New Yam Festival, Nigeria, Onitcha Igboeze Community, Rural tourism, Tourism potential

Socio-Economic Factors and Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Issues for Guidance and Counselling (Published)

This study analyzed the socio-economic factors influencing rural women farmers’ awareness of HIV/AIDs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Issue for Guidance and Counseling. The study employed purposive and multi-stage random sampling techniques in the selection of 120 rural women who formed the sample size. Primary data used for the study were collected using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of data analysis showed that the rural women in the study area were knowledgeable on mode of transmission of HIV/AIDs such as: mother-child (94.17 percent), sexual-intercourse ( 93.33 percent), contaminated sharp (piercing ) instruments (91.67 percent) among others. The result of multiple regression analysis indicated a coefficient of multiple determination R2 of 68.5 percent. This means that about 68.5 percent of the level of awareness of HIV/AIDs in the area was influenced by the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. Most of the explanatory variables were statistically significant and met a priori expectations. The null hypothesis tested at 5 percent level of significance was rejected. This shows that there is significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the rural women and their level of knowledge of HIV/AIDs in the area, hence the need for counseling. Further analysis identified lack of adequate information (3.64), remoteness of the rural areas (3.10), cost of information access (3.12) among others as major obstacles which limited rural women knowledge of HIV/AIDs in the area. It was concluded that improving the knowledge of HIV/AIDs through constant guidance and counseling would minimize the spread of the scourge and as well improve the contribution of the women to agricultural development in the study area. Necessary recommendations such as improving the educational status of the women farmers among others were made.

Keywords: Awareness Guidance and Counseling, Ebonyi State, HIV/AIDS, Nigeria, Rural Women, Socio-Economic Factors

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH MARKETERS IN ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS OF EBONYI STATE (Published)

This study assessed the socio-economics of fish marketers within Abakaliki metropolis of Ebonyi State. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of fish marketers in the study area, as well as identify the different species of fish in Abakaliki markets. Primary Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered through personal interview of the fish marketers. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Objectives 1 and 2 were analyzed using tables and percentages. From the analysis, it was observed that majority, (90%) of the fish marketers were female and (47%) were married. (41.43%) of them are 30 years and above. (54.29%) of them attempted secondary school. (24.29%) of them attempted higher schools among whom were in schools and still struggling for sustenance. (17.14%) finished primary school while (4.29%) had no formal education. They had household size of 7-9 (44.29%), 4-6(37.14%). The data gathered also showed that scomber marketers are mostly engaged in fresh fish selling (48.57%). They mostly sourced their fish from wholesalers or cold house operators (61.43%). The result showed that majority of them were women who used their income to assist their family in one way or the other. It also showed that most of their wares were sourced from imported fish. Based on these findings of the study, the following recommendations were made; government should create more incentives that will push more people into fish farming to reduce the rate of importation. Most fresh fish sellers should call for government assistance in the area of electricity supply to enable them keep unsold fishes till the next day.

Keywords: Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Fish Marketers, Nigeria

PERCEPTION AND AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS AMONG WOMEN FARMERS IN EBONYI STATE NIGERIA: NEED FOR COUNSELLING AND VOLUNTARY TESTING (Published)

Perception and level of awareness of HIV/AIDs among women farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was studied. The study employed purposive and multi-stage random sampling techniques in the selection of 120 rural women farmers. Primary data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of data analysis showed that majority 38.33 percent of the women farmers fall within age bracket of 26-35 years; their farming experience ranged 5-10 years with 36.67 percent; while their farm size ranged between 1.1-1.5 hectares. Majority 60.82 percent of the women were married and completed primary education with 38.33 percent. Majority 41.67 percent of the farmers live with between 4-6 persons in their household and earned between N80, 000-N100, 000 per annum. About 66.66 percent of the women belonged to 3-4 social organizations. Major sources of information on HIV/AIDs prevention to the rural women were: Ebonyi State Ministry of Health (2.90), religious institutions (3.12), social organizations (2.84), radio (3.67) and Ebonyi State Action Committee on Aids (EBOSACA) (3.66) among others Further analysis indicates that majority 100 percent of the respondents’ perceived that an HIV victim can live long on a special type of drug and hygienic condition (100 percent), HIV/AIDs is a viral disease (91.67 percent) while 85 percent perceived that HIV/AIDs exist and has no cure. All the women in the study area had knowledge of measures of HIV prevention such as total abstinence from sex, having one sex partner and screening of blood before transfusion. Majority 81.67 and 76.67 percent of the respondents were willing to be tested and would recommend it to their friends and family members. It was concluded that though the general level of awareness about HIV/AIDs was high, the perceptions of the respondents were faulty in some cases because of some misconception about causes and therapy to the disease. Necessary recommendations such as intensified awareness creation by the NGOs and concerned agencies, provision of infrastructures as well as education of farmers were made among others.

Keywords: Ebonyi State, HIV/AIDS, Nigeria, Perception, Voluntary Counseling and Testing, Women Farmers, awareness

LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION AND BENEFITS OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR FOOD SECURITY (NPFS) AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

This study assessed the level of participation and benefits of the National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) among rural women farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) is a five year nationwide Programme for Food Security launched in 2001 in Nigeria with the objective to increase and stabilize food production rapidly and sustainably through the wide spread dissemination of improved technologies and management practices in areas with high potential, and to create an economic and social environment conducive to food production as well as reaching some 30,000 farming families in each selected areas (FGN, 2006) Primary data were collected through field survey with well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results obtained indicated that radio was the major source of information to majority (28.3%) of the rural women participants. More so, majority (84.40%) of the women were not involved in planning NPFS programmes. Further analysis showed that majority (56.7%) of the rural women farmers merely participated in decision making process at information receiving level. Borehole facilities (39.4%) and community seed production (36.1%) were the major components benefited by majority of the women. It was concluded that the objectives of NPFS has not been effectively realized among the rural women due to their low level of participation in programme planning and implementation. Involvement of stakeholders in planning process ensures successful implementation of programmes since their felt needs are factored in during the process.

Keywords: Benefits, Ebonyi State, National Programme for Food Security, Nigeria, Participation, Rural Women

POTENTIALS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

Ebonyi State is one of the south east states in Nigeria and is highly endowed with enormous resources both renewable and non-renewable. It is currently known as the “Salt of the Nation” due to large salt deposits in the state. However the maximum solar irradiance in Ebonyi State is in the range 895.70 W/m2 to 1043.83 W/m2. The generation rate of solid waste in the state capital is 9.580 x 10-3m3. These values indicate that the level of insolation and volume of biomass resources available in Ebonyi State can generate sufficient electricity for both her domestic and industrial use if properly harnessed in a sustainable manner. Despite these resources, Ebonyi State like other states in Nigeria still depends solely on fossil fuel for her electricity generation. The overdependence on fossil fuels has generated serious negative consequences on the environment, climate and on the health sector. Moreso, Ebonyi State has continued to suffer from epileptic power supply and this has almost crippled her economic, social and industrial activities. This study presents the current energy situation and the status of renewable energy technology and utilisation in Ebonyi State. It also highlights the potential benefits of renewable energy utilisation as a viable means of revitalising, restructuring and diversifying her energy source for sustainable growth and development in the State. The prospects and challenges of renewable energy technology are also discussed, and finally propose the way forward.

Keywords: Biomass Energy, Ebonyi State, Insolation, Renewable Energy