Multidrug Resistance Profile and Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase Production in Faecal Escherichia coli Isolated From HIV and TB Patients in Ekiti-State, Nigeria (Published)
With the increasing use of antibiotics and widespread of antibiotics resistance which has been amplified by the production of ESBLs in clinical isolates; the study was to determine the multidrug resistance Profile and Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase production in faecal Escherichia coli isolated from HIV and TB Patients in Ekiti-State, Nigeria. Three hundred isolates of E. coli were obtained from the stool samples of HIV/AIDS patients, TB patients and apparently healthy individuals. The sample was cultured on Eosin-Methylene Blue (EMB) agar plate and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. The colony showing greenish metallic sheen was identified using the conventional biochemical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Bacteria showing resistance to at least three different classes of antibiotics were considered multidrug resistant (MDR). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase production was detected by combined disc method using ceftriaxone/cefotaxime and Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid discs.A total of 141(47%) males and 159(53%) female patients were involved in the study. Based on the age distribution, age group 30-39(n=80) has the highest percentage while age group 60 and above (29) has the lowest participation among the age groups. E. coli isolated from HIV/TB co-infected reveals 40(80%), 26(52%), 21(42%) and 37(82%) resistant to SXT, AMC, SAM and AZM respectively while 24(48%), 36(72%), 23(46%) and 26(52%) of E. coli isolated from HIV patients on treatment were resistant to SXT, AMC, SAM and AZM. Tuberculosis patients on anti- TB treatment had 45(90%), 34(68%), 36(72%) and 44(88%) of the isolates resistant to SXT, AMC, SAM and AZM respectively while E. coli isolated from newly diagnosed HIV patients were 31(62%), 29(58%), 15(30%) and 27(54%) of the E. coli were resistant to SXT, AMC, SAM and AZM. Similarly, 33(66%), 36(72%), 15(30%) and 39(78%) of the isolated E. coli from newly diagnosed TB patients showed resistance to SXT, AMC, SAM and AZM respectively. Among the 148 multiple antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates 38 (23.75%) were found to be Extended β-lactamase (EBLS) positive with majority of the positive EBSL E. coli isolate from TB and TB associated patients. The increase in the prevalence of ESBL among faecal E. coli, an indicator organism for enteric pathogens, however, express the urgent need for serious antibiotics stewardship and control among clinicians and other health personnel especially in developing and under developed countries for proper management of the immune-impaired individuals.
Dft, Qsar And Docking Studies On 2-[5-(Aryloxymethyl)-1, 3, 4-Oxadiazol-2-Ylsulfanyl] Acetic Acids Derivatives Against E. Coli. (Published)
The growing occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria contagions has encouraged the pursuit for fresh and active antibacterial drugs. The derivatives of acetic acid play a crucial role in several manufacturing companies like, chemicals companies, plastics industries, drug production companies etc. Also, the anti-E-coli activity of 2-[5-(aryloxymethyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-ylsulfanyl] acetic acids derivatives were observed by using density functional theory (DFT), Quantitative Structure Activity Relation (QSAR) and docking methods. The calculated descriptors were used to develop QSAR model which reproduced the experimental inhibition concentration (IC50) by using equation 3. More so, compound 3f showed a greater inhibiting ability than other compounds when docked against E. coli cell line (1grx).
Hydrochemistry and Sanitary Risk Assessment of Domestic Hand-Dug Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria (Published)
This research focused on hydrochemistry and sanitary risk assessment of domestic hand-dug wells in Ado-Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria with a view to improve/ensure the safety of the drinking water supply in the study area. To carry out the sanitary risk assessment, all the hazards and hazardous events that can affect the safety of water supply from the shallow wells through treatment and distribution to the consumers’ point of use were identified and evaluated. Subsequently, 30 water samples fairly spread over the catchment area were taken and analyzed for chemical constituents employing Atomic Absorption Spectrometer for the cations and ion chromatography for the anions. E-coli of another set of the 30 water samples were determined using standard method. Result of the sanitary survey revealed that 14 of the sampled wells were at high risk with 13 and 3 of them in intermediate and low risk respectively. The hydrochemistry of the groundwater revealed that most of the wells in the study area were at risk of contamination as indicated by the high chemical concentrations of NO3- (>50mg/L) and Cl-(>250mg/L) in 43% and 70% of the sampled water respectively. All other chemical parameters have concentrations within approved WHO standard for drinking water. E-coli were present in 90% (27out of 30 samples) of the water samples and this clearly support the sanitary survey of which 27 of the sampled well water fell into high to intermediate risk category. The study indicated that 90% of the wells in the study area are at risk of contamination. High concentrations of NO3- and Cl- from hydrochemical evaluation of the well water as well as presence of e-coli in 90% of the water indicated that the sources of pollution are from anthropogenic sources related to human and animal wastes at close proximity to wells. Safety of the water from the hand dug wells can be improved if health education is intensified in the area.