This study aims to examine the effect of environmental uncertainty on entrepreneurial success amongst 9,450 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) who are registered members of the National Association of Small and Medium Enterprises (NASME), National Association of Small Scale Industrialists (NASSI) and Association of Small Business Owners in Nigeria (ASBON) in Lagos State. Proportionate stratified random sampling method was used to select samples from the sampling frame. Sample size of 381 used for the study was determined using the formula developed by the National Education Association (1960). Primary data on the dependent variable (Entrepreneurial success) and independent variable (Environmental uncertainty) was collected using questionnaire as research instrument. Environmental uncertainty measures are dynamism, complexity and hostility while measures for entrepreneurial success are profitability, market share, net asset growth, sales growth and government policies. The questionnaire was pretested by a pilot study of 50 selected SMEs. Data obtained from the pilot study was analyzed and based on the result, the questionnaire was slightly modified giving an overall Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.791. The statistics of the model summary reveal correlation co-efficient R = .519 indicating that the combined influence of the three predictor variables of dynamism, complexity and hostility has a strong positive relationship with entrepreneurial success. The R square is .269 or 26.9% signifying that the combined influence of the predictor variables explains 26.9% of the variations in entrepreneurial success. The value of F (3,206) = 25.321, p <.05, shows that the combined effect of dynamism, complexity and hostility was statistically significant in explaining changes in entrepreneurial success in Lagos State. This is confirmed by a p value which is less than the acceptance critical value of 0.05. The model shows that the regression coefficients results for both dynamism (β = .155, t = 2.390, p = .018) and complexity (β = .464, t = 7.392, p = .000) indicate positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial success in Lagos State. The finding indicates that a unit increase in both dynamism and complexity of environmental uncertainty would lead to increase in entrepreneurial success in Lagos State. The regression coefficients for hostility (β = -.155, t = -2.484, p = .014) indicate a negative relationship with entrepreneurial success, though the relationship was significant, p <.05. Complexity measure has the highest influence on entrepreneurial success with a p value was 0.000 followed by hostility with a p value 0.014, and then dynamism with a p value of 0.018.
FROM INGNORANCE TO EXPERIENCE: PROTAGONISTS OF DYNAMISM IN FESTUS IYAYI’S VIOLENCE AND HEROES (Published)
This paper foregrounds the notion of dynamic protagonist in Festus Iyayi’s two novels. Idemudia and Iyere are seen as protagonists of dynamism whose volte-face as the plots unfold is orchestrated by their new experience, knowledge and maturity. Idemudia who starts off as an idealist with rose tinted spectacles fashioned from the mill of inexperience later becomes a life-beaten but introspective realist who has come to appreciate that life’s sacrifices come in different forms. Similarly, Osime Iyere who initially sees humanity in the federal troops and undiluted savagery on the Biafran side during the civil war later comes to see the two sides in the war as nothing but murderers and rapists of defenceless civilians. His contention, therefore, is that the war is actually a huge conspiracy of the blood-sucking bourgeoisie on both sides against the masses in general who can only be saved by a neutral third army with membership from both sides. In conclusion, the paper states that by artistically placing the two protagonists in the two novels where their experiences invest them with the correct education toward combating the oppressive alienating disorder in the society Iyayi’s thesis is clear: the masses must be correctly educated about the nature of the society in order to wage a meaningful war against its crushing lopsidedness.