Tag Archives: Duration

Effects of Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.) seedlings root dip in Shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) bark extracts on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) infestation and tomato yield in Adamawa, Nigeria (Published)

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) have been established to cause serious yield loss to crops worldwide and that of tomato in particular. Their control or management has been a problem lowered chemical control though successful are harmful to environment and human health and they are also costly to the resource poor farmers in Nigeria. Therefore, an experiment was set up to determine the efficacy of plant extracts which are easily broken down and could be less costly. A field experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of bark extracts of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) on Meloidogyne javanica infestation on tomato using seedling root dips. The field experiments were laid out in a split plot design at Loko and Mayo Belwa locations, the two factors were concentration and time of exposure, four different concentrations (control, 10, 30 and 60%) and four different exposure periods (5, 15, 30 and 60 mins)  making sixteen treatments replicated three times. Concentrations were assigned to main plot while exposure period allocated to subplots. Data were taken from the two locations on number of flowers, number of fruits, cumulative fruits weight (g), number of nematodes in 100g of soil and number of nematodes in 10g of roots. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated with Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% level of probability. The results of the field experiment at both Loko and Mayo Belwa location, showed that the root dip with 60% concentration exposed for 60 minutes in shea butter bark extracts recorded the highest number of flowers/plant 61.25 and 53.50 for concentration, 47.92 and 43.92 for duration at Loko and Mayo Belwa respectively. Number of fruits/plant 24.41 and 21.58 concentration and 17.33 and 15.08 duration, heaviest cumulative fruit weight/plant 2671.7 and 2461.6g concentration and 2320.3 and 2094.4g duration, nematode population in 100g of soil 372.4 and 461.3 concentration and (678.8 and 786.8 duration) and nematode population in 10g of roots/plant 124.2 and 189.9 concentration and 363.5 and 469.8 duration) at Loko and Mayo Belwa respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that V. paradoxa bark extracts was able to control M. javanica in the field as root dip. Therefore, this plant material has the potentials of replacing the environmental unfriendly and harmful nematicides found in the market today.

Keywords: Duration, Meloidogyne javanivca, Shea butter, Tomato, root dip

Factors that Influence Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Literature Review (Published)

Every year more than 10 million children under the age of five years die, mainly from one of a short list of causes which already can prevented through successful base of exclusive breastfeeding.   Although WHO and Uniceif recommends early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour from birth) and  exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. The exclusive breastfeeding rate and early initiation to breastfeeding are still very low, because there are many factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding such as, lack of knowledge, lactation problems, poor family and social support, social norms, embarrassment, employment and child care, and health services. As well, a lot of barriers to successful exclusive breastfeeding among employed mothers have been identified in the work environment such as company policies/work culture, manager support/lack of support, co-worker support/lack of support, and the physical environment of the breastfeeding space. So; we see there is a need for   implementation of an educational program through primary health care settings as well mass media to improve, promote and support the exclusive breastfeeding practices, both national and international among working and non-mothers should be done.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, Duration, Exclusive, Factors

Intonational Structure of Erei Speakers of English (Published)

Intonation is a feature of supra-segmental phonology which emcompasses, among others, rhythm, height, pitch range, fundamental frequency and timing, resulting in communicative intelligibility in English. But the feature has not been seriously studied in the second language suituation, and it is the level where language transfer is most noticed among second language users. The study investigated the intonational structure in the speech of Erei-English biliguals, using the speech outputs of the subjects to determine their mastery of tunes (falling and rising), fundamental frequency as well as duration. It is arguably true that the incorrect production of intonational patterns on English would result to ineffective communication, different interpretations and unintelligibility, among many others. Yet, the feature has traditionally been neglected in the second language teaching even when the non-segmental features are studied. The data (four sentences) used for the study were obtained through recorded utterances that were read aloud by the subjects, and were subjected to computerised speech laboratory. Two research objectives and questions were adopted to guide the study. The findings showed that Erei-English bilinguals lack the knowledge of intonation; the falling tune is used in all utterances as compared to the native speaker’s output, thereby do not observe a tone distinction between yes/no question and statement intonationally. They also exhibit a different alternation from the Standard British English (SBE), using more time to produce an utterance. The performance suggests that a majority of Erei-English bilinguals in the study were yet to meet SBE, and that intonation is the final hurdle which many speakers of English as L2 hardly could cross. The study suggested the provision of teaching materials, radio and television language programmes and technology, among others, to help improve communicative intelligibility among Ere-English users in Nigeria.

Keywords: Duration, Erei-English Bilinguals, Fundamental Frequency, Intonation

Duration and Modern Physics: A Verification of the Paradigm Shift from Ontology of Substance to That of Becoming (Published)

The history of Western Philosophy is populated by Substance –geared metaphysics despite the introduction of the ontology of becoming by Heraclitus. Science as ancillary to Philosophy equally witnessed a parallel boost and interpretation to the ontology of Substance with its mechanistic and certainty approach to reality. Only recently, the emergence of Modern physics; a new Physics of subatomic particles has called to question, the well established mechanistic model of science. Recently too, following the train of Science, Philosophy has come to grips with Science’s new results and has made a fundamental revision of the standard tools of Philosophy. This revision is seen in the concept of ‘duartion’ advocated by Henri Bergson; a paradigm shift to the ontology of becoming

Keywords: Becoming, Duration, Modern Physics, Ontology, Paradigm Shift, Substance