Tag Archives: DNA

The Application of Molecular Marker on Crop Heterosis Development: A Review Paper (Published)

Heterosis has historically been exploited in plants; however, its underlying genetic mechanisms and molecular basis remain elusive. The use of molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting agriculturally important traits has become a key approach in plant genetics-both for understanding the genetic basis of these traits and to help design novel plant improvement programs. Hybrids are commercially successful in many crops, including sorghum. Development of hybrids through the exploitation of heterosis involves evaluation of hundreds of test crosses in the field, making it input and resource intensive. Therefore, plant breeders are interested in methods that can forecast the potential parental combinations so that only limited test crosses can be evaluated for heterosis. The availability of genomic tools such as DNA markers and gene expression platforms has encouraged research groups globally to work toward the prediction of heterosis. This review is intended to be a summary of recent developments in molecular markers and their applications in plant breeding and is devoted to early researchers with a little or no knowledge of molecular markers. Overall, this review reveals about the role of various recently developed molecular markers in the improvement of crop. Molecular markers act as a breakthrough for the researchers who aim to enhance crop breeding and its role in heterosis.

Citation: Tafere Mulualem Emrey (2022) The Application of Molecular Marker on Crop Heterosis Development: A Review Paper, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.5, pp.51-60

 

Keywords: DNA, Heterosis, MAS, Molecular marker

Genomic diseases in humans & weapons of universal reactions of matter (Published)

Genomic diseases are caused by structural as well as numerical changes or abnormalities in DNA/s of the Genome. The genomic (genetic) abnormality can range from a discrete mutation in a single base (point mutation) of a single gene in a DNA molecule to gross abnormality of whole DNA molecule involving the addition or subtraction of entire DNA or set of DNAs. The key objective of this study is to spectacularly demonstrate the fact that Genome is the only wonderful molecule that synthesizes itself & all genomic-things using their nutritive substances as raw materials in their compatible environment.  Listing genomic diseases and causative agents including universal reactions of matter as materials & methods and then dealing with them in an interpretive approach in Results and Discussion section had been taken to be the best option or procedure of design.  Results are very concentratedly displayed together with the causative agents in Results and Discussion section particularly in videos of Figure 1 and Figure 2. Genome is the only thing (molecule) that synthesizes all genomic-things & itself. This is why that when the genome becomes an abnormal genome due to abnormal changes in it, it synthesizes abnormal individuals, i.e., persons having genomic diseases. In other words, abnormal genome synthesizes abnormal individuals whereas the normal genome synthesizes normal individuals as in a controlled experiment.Structural or numerical changes, being unnatural in DNA molecule/s of the human Genome result in genomic diseases (disorders). Weaponizing universal reactions of matter and utilizing them in war have been ascertained that it can delete: -humans, all other forms of genomic-things, and science as well as technology we have including economic wealth in cash (that can be burnt just like trash papers in a basket) from the surface of this planet within few hours!!

Keywords: DNA, Genome, abnormality, disorder, gene, genomic disease, weaponizing

Abstract of Natural Way of Reversal of Aging Process (Published)

Aging is changes in biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, behavioural, and social processes. aging will likely cause wrinkles and gray hair.Etiopathogenesis: My  Aetiology Based on (1)Sirtuins Pathway(2) Telomere (3)Oxidation of DNA(4) loss of proteostasis (protein folding and proteolysis)(5)VLCD(6)Lymphatic Message on Whole body and Genital, HIFU treatment.

Keywords: DNA, HIFU Treatment, Halt Proeostasis, Lymphatic Message, Oxidation, Sirtuin Pathway, Telomere, VLCD

The Potential Hindrance of Sars-Cov2 Spike Proteins, Prions Misfolded Proteins and other Infected Proteineous Molecule Incorporating Toxic Genomes of Pathogenic Microbes from Gaining Access into the Human Body Cells. Through the Use of a New Biomimetic Nanoparticle Coated Cell Membrane (Published)

This research study paper advocates for a new bio-mimetic nano coated cell membrane, to help in fighting infections and other related diseases in the human body system. As pathogenic microbes, (bacteria, fungi, viruses etc.) have carefully studied and mastered how to trick and evade body immune defense protein and antibodies in the human body system, by generating special protein organelles or manipulating protein molecules to delude the human immune system in other to gain access into the human body cells. Every living organism is composed of four basic components, namely (DNA or RNA or both, proteins, Cells and Cell membrane). This paper reviews these four basic components in their respective sub headings. Also, this article advocates for the use of nanoparticles to create the new cell membrane. The reasons for suggesting nanoparticles is because nanomaterials are dynamic, easily manipulated, and have proofed to be a very effective tool in modern medicine. The research focused more on viruses, as it is the most implicated amongst microbes. The human existence is undergoing significant challenges because of the outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Therefore, this research work gives a brief detailed study of the infectious process of coronavirus, and how it uses its spike proteins to bind and infect the human cells. Special attention should be given to the conceptual frame work of this research paper as it holds the potential key on how to hinder viruses especially SARS-COV2. The conceptual framework of this research argues and explains why we need to introduce a new bio-mimetic cell membrane, the limitations of the normal cell membrane in the body, and how this new cell membrane will overcome these shortcomings or limitations and provide a more robust working efficiency, the functions and working mechanism of the new cell membrane, which is impenetrable to viruses and other pathogenic microbes. The theoretical framework of this article is composed of two different theories. The first reviews  the cytokine storm theory and the second reviews the fluid mosaic model and the functions of cell membrane in the body.  The Related empirical Research study reviews the existing work related with the use of nanoparticles in fighting the SARS-CoV-2 CORONAVIRUS, in addition x-raying the progress in    creation of new cells and cell membrane by modern research scientist. Finally, the article highlights potential research recommendations and research for further research study points.

Keywords: Cells, DNA, Microbes, Proteins, RNA, bio-mimetic, cell membrane, nanoparticles, pathogen, prion, semi-permeable, thymine, uracil, viruses

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on Pig’s Spleen DNA Treated with Zinc Sulphate and Glutathione (Published)

Background and Aim: Disinfection of surface waters is often done to destroy pathogenic organisms present in water bodies in order to render water safe for consumption, but chlorination of drinking waters has been debated as being toxic to experimental animals including man. The aim of this work was to investigate using biochemical techniques whether disinfection of drinking water by chlorination is harmful or not. Materials and Methods: The materials used were water, calcium hypochlorite, Pig’s spleen, zinc sulphate and reduced glutathione. The water sample was obtained from river Jama’are in Bauchi state, and its quality assessed by estimation of temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, Cl, SO32-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents. The water sample was chlorinated using calcium hypochlorite (65-70% Cl2). DNA was isolated from Pig’s spleen and used as a model to test the direct effect of the chlorinated water sample on animal health. The effect was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of the chlorinated water sample on the biomolecule was also studied in the presence of zinc sulphate and glutathione (GSH). This was compared with that of a control experiment. Results: The results revealed that the chlorinated water sample altered the native structure of the isolated DNA. But in the presence of 0.1mM zinc sulphate and varied concentrations of GSH (0.1mM, 0.2mM and 0.3mM respectively) the chlorinated sample was found to have no noticeable effect on the isolated biomolecule; a pointer that Zn and GSH may have conjugated with chlorinated water products and detoxified them. Conclusion: It is suggested that drinking of chlorinated water is not harmful to health.

 

Keywords: Chlorination, DNA, Glutathione, Health, Pig, Water, Zinc

Genetic Transformation Of Phalaenopsis Amabilis With Resistance To Soft Rot Disease, Herbicide And Glowing In The Dark By Particle Bombardment Method (Published)

Genetic transformation of Phalaenopsis amabilis has been performed. We used particle bombardment method. The tungstens were coated with DNA (plasmid containing wasabi and bar gene, and co-plasmid containing luc gene). The purpose of this study is for crop improvement of ornamental plant. We obtained 27 transgenic P. amabilis. It is resistance to soft rot disease, herbicide and glowing in the dark. Interestingly, one of the transgenic plant propagated by itself. To the best of our knowledge, a concurent shot of wasabi and bar gene together with a luciferase gene is reported as a first study in this research.

Keywords: Bombardment Method, DNA, Genetic Transformation, Soft Rot Disease

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on Pig’s Spleen DNA Treated with Zinc Sulphate and Glutathione (Published)

Background and Aim: Disinfection of surface waters is often done to destroy pathogenic organisms present in water bodies in order to render water safe for consumption. But chlorination of drinking waters has been debated as being toxic to experimental animals including man. The aim of this work was to investigate using biochemical techniques whether disinfection of drinking water by chlorination is harmful or not. Materials and Methods: The materials used were water, calcium hypochlorite, Pig’s spleen, zinc sulphate and reduced glutathione. The water sample was obtained from river Jama’are in Bauchi state, and its quality assessed by estimation of temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, Cl-, SO32-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents. The water sample was chlorinated using calcium hypochlorite (65-70% Cl2). DNA was isolated from Pig’s spleen and used as a model to test the direct effect of the chlorinated water sample on animal health. The effect was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of the chlorinated water sample on the biomolecule was also studied in the presence of zinc sulphate and glutathione (GSH). This was compared with that of a control experiment. Results: The results revealed that the chlorinated water sample altered the native structure of the isolated DNA. But in the presence of 0.1mM zinc sulphate and varied concentrations of GSH (0.1mM, 0.2mM and 0.3mM respectively) the chlorinated sample was found to have no noticeable effect on the isolated biomolecule; a pointer that Zn and GSH may have conjugated with chlorinated water products and detoxified them. Conclusion: It is suggested that drinking of chlorinated water is not harmful to health.

Keywords: Chlorination, DNA, Glutathione, Health, Pig, Water, Zinc