Tag Archives: Distribution

Distribution, Abundance and Age Cohorts of Phorcus Turbinatus (Gastropoda) In Eastern Libya’s Mediterranean Sea (Published)

Distribution of Phorcus turbinatus along the littoral zones of Al-Haneah and Susah, eastern Libya’s Mediterranean Sea, at day, at low tide, was studied using belt transects with quadrates. P. turbinatus in both sites inhabited only the lower rocky littoral, many times in aggregates in tidal pools. P. turbinatus was absent in the mid and the upper rocky littoral, all the sandy shores, and the sublittoral. The abundance was maximum just above the shoreline (209 and 207 individuals/m2 in both sites), and decreased on moving up the littoral. Factors controlling the distribution were discussed. P. turbinatus showed no size gradient on moving upwards from the shoreline to the upper littoral. Frequency distribution of “height of shell from base to the apex” (HBA) indicated that P. turbinatus populations of both study sites exist in three age cohorts. Mean HBA of cohort 1 and 2 in Al-Haneah was 7 and 15mm, mean HBA of cohort 3 could not be determined; in Susah, HBA of cohorts 1 and 2 were 6 and 11.8mm.

Keywords: Abundance, Distribution, Monodonta turbinata, Phorcus turbinatus, age cohort.

Synonyms and Corpus Analysis: On About And Around (Published)

This paper presents an exploratory corpus study of synonymous prepositions ‘about’ and ‘around’ and compares their usage and distribution differences, patterns, and similarities. The data sources are dictionaries that explain the relationship the two synonyms share, situational and contextual usage and the distinct meanings while transforming into other parts of speech. This study demonstrates the affinity between the two words and the immeasurable meanings and semantic relations they share. Finally, a corpus-based analysis of the two words reveals the collocations, frequency and context collocations they significantly occur.

Keywords: Corpus, Dictionary, Distribution, Language analysis, similarities

Relationship between Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Program and Rural Household Livelihoods in Kapseret Constituency, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Program and rural household livelihoods in Kapseret Constituency, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was based on Theory of Change. Correlation Research Design was used to examine the study questions. The study targeted 272 respondents who were the connected customers of the Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Program in Kapseret Constituency, Uasin Gishu County. A sample size of 161 respondents was selected for the study using simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study to collect data from each respondent. Content validation method was also used in the research to measure the validity of the instrument. Data collected were analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The finding revealed that patterns in the distribution of electricity (β1= 0.546, p<0.05), and electricity usage (β2 = 0.283, p<0.05) had a positive and significant effect on rural household livelihoods. Therefore, there is need for Kenya power to raise awareness on the modalities to be made to access electricity in the rural areas. Also, the electricity connection needs to be designed in such a way that it can easily be adapted to both domestic and commercial uses in order to improve rural household livelihoods.               

Keywords: Distribution, Household, Last Mile Connectivity Program, Livelihood, electricity usage

Effect of Seasonal Variation on Abundance and Sex Ratio Distribution of the Fish Fauna of Ikere Gorge, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

The study determined the effect of season on abundance and sex ratio of fish fauna from Ikere-gorge. Fish composition, distribution and abundance were determined. Sexes were also determined and sex ratio calculated. 5,736 fish specimens were caught, identified and classified into 34 species, from 13 families. Chrysichthyes nigrodigitatus was densely and least distributed in station IV (29.98%), and III (19.87%). Lates niloticus was more in station III (3.81%) but significantly lower (p<0.05) than C. nigrodigitatus and Tilapia melanopleura in station 2. C. nigrodigitatus and Sarotherodon galilaeus were present in all sampling months. Sex ratio was skewed in favour of the female populations for C. nigrodigitatus, T. melanopleura and S. galilaeus but towards male for L. niloticus population. No seasonal variation was observed in sex ratio of the species. Conclusively, C. nigrodigitatus, T. melanopleura and S. galilaeus are not threatened in this water but same could not be said for L. niloticus.

Keywords: Chrysichthyes nigrodigitatus, Distribution, Fish composition, Lates niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Tilapia melanopleura

Improving Sales Force Management towards Ensuring Adequate Training and Motivation of Sales People for Efficient and Effective Distribution of Unilever Products in Enugu (Published)

Improving sales force management towards ensuring adequate motivation and training of salespeople for efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products was studied. The sales force had had a hard time dealing with making higher sales without many extraneous and intervening variables. The specific objectives were to ascertain the degree of improving the relationship between sales force motivation and efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products and to determine the extent of improving the significant effect of training of sales force on efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products. The population of the study was 55 (45 sales representatives and 10 sales managers from 3 key distributors of Unilever Nigeria located in Enugu metropolis. The sample size is 48 using Taro Yamani sample size determination method. For the validity of the instrument, the questionnaire was vetted by research professionals based on face validity in terms of relevance to the subject matter, objective of the study, coverage of the content areas, appropriateness of language usage and clarity of purpose. The value of the test of reliability is 0.977 which was conducted using Cronbach’s Alpha. Primary data was adopted for the study. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient and simple linear regression data analyzing techniques was applied. The findings revealed that there is a significant degree of improvement in relationship between sales force motivation and efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products (r = 0.887, p < 0.05). And secondly, it was revealed that sales force training has an improved significant effect on efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products (r = 0.94; t = 18.585; F= 345.399; p < 0.05). The researcher is of the recommendation that firstly, that if the sales force is highly motivated, they will put in their best towards achieving greater success for the organization (Unilever). For the sales representatives, the laissez faire manner of operating gives them a sense of high esteem and belongingness to Unilever. Also, it is recommended that the sales force should undertake adequate training to make them more viable to efficiently and effectively distribute Unilever products. The general believe that salesmen are born is relegated here as adequate training is reiterated and resonated among sales managers.

Keywords: Distribution, Sales Force Motivation, Sales Force Training., Sales Management, Theories of motivation


The paper attempts to establish the evolutionary trend and spatial distribution of traditional marketplaces in Kano metropolis and as well evaluates organizational and operational issues that characterized the Kano business landscape on environmental perspectives. The methods used include: Analysis of Satellite Imageries of 2011; Inventory and Field Observation; Use of Official Records; In-depth Interviews; FGD; and Case Study. The results show that there are total of 43 existing markets and as well they are the strength of Kano business landscape. 22 are community markets; 7 metropolitan; 5 regional; and 9 international markets. The evolutionary trend shows that the Kano markets evolved in three main phases namely: the first generation markets; second generation; and the recent or contemporary markets, but unevenly distributed which has been found to have both negative and positive environmental repercussion. Moreover, the business landscape is characterized with the proliferation of super-stores, shopping malls and other trading avenues along major roads and streets which on their own sphere form another kind of market (the unconventional markets). Frequent conflagratory fire outbreak; absence of security and peace due to militant crusade; and operational issues such as inadequate electric power supply; noise pollution and ambient air contamination are the major challenges facing the growth and development of markets and the sustainability index of the entire Kano business landscape. Based on the scenario of Kano business landscape, a descriptive model was drawn which portrays how markets served as central controlling or coordinating unit in terms of interception of supplies and demands and discharging them accordingly. On that direction, it has been postulated that if the operational challenges inherent in the Kano business landscape are overcome and good governance has been sustained, Kano would experienced an industrial breakthrough in about 20 years and it will emerge as the first megalopolis in West Africa. It was therefore recommended that, markets should be included in the economic development plan of Kano; Environmental management system should be put in place; and Good governance should be pursued at all levels; among others.

Keywords: Distribution, Issues, Trend, and Kano, markets