Effect of Seasonal Variation on Abundance and Sex Ratio Distribution of the Fish Fauna of Ikere Gorge, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study determined the effect of season on abundance and sex ratio of fish fauna from Ikere-gorge. Fish composition, distribution and abundance were determined. Sexes were also determined and sex ratio calculated. 5,736 fish specimens were caught, identified and classified into 34 species, from 13 families. Chrysichthyes nigrodigitatus was densely and least distributed in station IV (29.98%), and III (19.87%). Lates niloticus was more in station III (3.81%) but significantly lower (p<0.05) than C. nigrodigitatus and Tilapia melanopleura in station 2. C. nigrodigitatus and Sarotherodon galilaeus were present in all sampling months. Sex ratio was skewed in favour of the female populations for C. nigrodigitatus, T. melanopleura and S. galilaeus but towards male for L. niloticus population. No seasonal variation was observed in sex ratio of the species. Conclusively, C. nigrodigitatus, T. melanopleura and S. galilaeus are not threatened in this water but same could not be said for L. niloticus.
Improving Sales Force Management towards Ensuring Adequate Training and Motivation of Sales People for Efficient and Effective Distribution of Unilever Products in Enugu (Published)
Improving sales force management towards ensuring adequate motivation and training of salespeople for efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products was studied. The sales force had had a hard time dealing with making higher sales without many extraneous and intervening variables. The specific objectives were to ascertain the degree of improving the relationship between sales force motivation and efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products and to determine the extent of improving the significant effect of training of sales force on efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products. The population of the study was 55 (45 sales representatives and 10 sales managers from 3 key distributors of Unilever Nigeria located in Enugu metropolis. The sample size is 48 using Taro Yamani sample size determination method. For the validity of the instrument, the questionnaire was vetted by research professionals based on face validity in terms of relevance to the subject matter, objective of the study, coverage of the content areas, appropriateness of language usage and clarity of purpose. The value of the test of reliability is 0.977 which was conducted using Cronbach’s Alpha. Primary data was adopted for the study. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient and simple linear regression data analyzing techniques was applied. The findings revealed that there is a significant degree of improvement in relationship between sales force motivation and efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products (r = 0.887, p < 0.05). And secondly, it was revealed that sales force training has an improved significant effect on efficient and effective distribution of Unilever products (r = 0.94; t = 18.585; F= 345.399; p < 0.05). The researcher is of the recommendation that firstly, that if the sales force is highly motivated, they will put in their best towards achieving greater success for the organization (Unilever). For the sales representatives, the laissez faire manner of operating gives them a sense of high esteem and belongingness to Unilever. Also, it is recommended that the sales force should undertake adequate training to make them more viable to efficiently and effectively distribute Unilever products. The general believe that salesmen are born is relegated here as adequate training is reiterated and resonated among sales managers.
EVOLUTIONARY TREND, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF, AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MARKETS IN KANO METROPOLIS (Published)
The paper attempts to establish the evolutionary trend and spatial distribution of traditional marketplaces in Kano metropolis and as well evaluates organizational and operational issues that characterized the Kano business landscape on environmental perspectives. The methods used include: Analysis of Satellite Imageries of 2011; Inventory and Field Observation; Use of Official Records; In-depth Interviews; FGD; and Case Study. The results show that there are total of 43 existing markets and as well they are the strength of Kano business landscape. 22 are community markets; 7 metropolitan; 5 regional; and 9 international markets. The evolutionary trend shows that the Kano markets evolved in three main phases namely: the first generation markets; second generation; and the recent or contemporary markets, but unevenly distributed which has been found to have both negative and positive environmental repercussion. Moreover, the business landscape is characterized with the proliferation of super-stores, shopping malls and other trading avenues along major roads and streets which on their own sphere form another kind of market (the unconventional markets). Frequent conflagratory fire outbreak; absence of security and peace due to militant crusade; and operational issues such as inadequate electric power supply; noise pollution and ambient air contamination are the major challenges facing the growth and development of markets and the sustainability index of the entire Kano business landscape. Based on the scenario of Kano business landscape, a descriptive model was drawn which portrays how markets served as central controlling or coordinating unit in terms of interception of supplies and demands and discharging them accordingly. On that direction, it has been postulated that if the operational challenges inherent in the Kano business landscape are overcome and good governance has been sustained, Kano would experienced an industrial breakthrough in about 20 years and it will emerge as the first megalopolis in West Africa. It was therefore recommended that, markets should be included in the economic development plan of Kano; Environmental management system should be put in place; and Good governance should be pursued at all levels; among others.