Tag Archives: Distance

Thermal Effect of Gas Flaring Activities in Ogba-Egbema-Ndomi Community, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper presents some negative environmental impact resulting from one of the gas flaring station in Ogba-Egbema-Ndomi Community, Rivers State, Nigeria. The variation of Surface temperature with distance from the gas flaring station in the study area was investigated. The result shows that Atmospheric Temperature Ta (oC) and Soil Temperature TS (oC) from the flare station to a distance of about at 1800m from the station were above the acceptable temperature convenient for plants and animals to grow well. The temperature tends to normalized at about 290C at about 2000m away from the flare point. Hence the inhabitance of Ogba-Egbema-Ndomi and environs are advised to start their farming activities from about 2000m away from the flare station located in their locality. This increase in temperature also has other negative effects on the inhabitants of the area

Keywords: Distance, Environmental impact, Gas flare, Inhabitants, Temperature

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS ROOFING MATERIALS ON NAVAIDS TRANSMISSION DISTANCE (Published)

The occurrence of interference that causes partial loss of intelligence in air navigation signal is largely dependent on total environment around radio navigation aid systems (navaids). Directional antenna polar diagrams can be measured in horizontal or vertical mode. Usually the horizontal mode means a rotation of the test antenna in the electric or E-Plane and magnetic or H-plane for the vertical mode. This paper compares the effect that selected roofing materials have on Navaids transmission distance. To achieve this, a transmitter, a receiver and a computer to measure signal level transmitted through roofing materials at a frequency of 9.4GHz are used. The study considered effects of decra, iron, steel, aluminum, plastic and clay materials on navaids transmission distance. The study found that effects of roofing materials on transmission distance varied depending on the type of selected roofing material. Signals via plastic materials decreased with distance as those via aluminum increased with distance. However the overall effect of roofing materials on transmission distance was not significant since the received signal was within the recommended strength. Also the materials had path loss exponent factors of between 3.0 to 3.7 which meant that the rate at which the signal was propagated through these structures was significantly slower than in free space where exponent factor is 2. It is recommended that studies be directed in conducting experiments in open fields and factoring in sources of variability arising from the environment so as to relate to the actual scenario of flight navigation

Keywords: Distance, Navaids, Roofing Materials, Transmission

CHEMICAL PREDICTION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN PARTS OF OWERRI IMO STATE IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA (Published)

The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality in parts of Owerri in Imo State was carried out. The chemical parameters of groundwater samples from Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze and Avu were subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in Owerri in Imo State. A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination. All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. The results for concentration of Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

Keywords: Chemical., Distance, Groundwater, Owerri West

PREDICTION OF WATER QUALITY OF EUPHRATES RIVER BY USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODEL (SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL STUDY) (Published)

Euphrates river is one of the most important rivers in Iraq. The monitoring and assessment of the water quality of this river spatially and temporally are a challenging problem. In this study, Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) model was used for prediction and forecasting the monthly Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) parameter in water. In the ANN model calibration, a computers program of multiple regressions (MLR) is used to obtain a set of coefficients for a linear model .Six sampling stations located along the Euphrates River were chosen. The period of study extended during 1999 and 2013.The input parameters of the ANN model were the flow rates of Euphrates River, the year, the month and the distance of the sampling stations from the upstream of the river. The results indicate that the discharge and distance had the most significant effect on the predicted TDS with a relative importance of (75 %) and (61%) respectively, followed by year and month with a relative importance of (33%) and (4%) respectively. The output was TDS of the water. The forecasting ability of these models is accessed on the basis of correlation coefficient, MAPE and RMSE. Using the connection weights and the threshold levels which obtained from ANN model, the equation of TDS concentration in p.p.m. for Euphrates river can accurately predict the TDS with a correlation coefficient, RMSE and MAPE were 0.928, 319.5 and 21.26% respectively. It is important in water quality management and finding the missing data. The concentration gradient of TDS of Euphrates river reaches between A-Qaim-Fallujah, Fallujah-Hindiyah, Hindiyah-Kufa and Kufa-Nassriyah were 0.0, 0.45, 3.0 and 10.0 p.p.m/Km. Comparison between final result of ANN and Multiple Regression Analysis showed the result in ANN models (RMSE and MAPE) values were less than them in multiple regression model which show higher accuracy of ANN model. So, ANN could explain the variability of the TDS of water in Euphrates river with more efficiency and outperform Statistical technique in forecasting. The advantages of using ANN model are to provide a new alternative to MLR and some other conventional statistical techniques which are often limited by strict assumptions of normality, linearity, variable independence, one pass approximation and dimensionality

Keywords: ANN, Distance, Euphrates River, MLR, Time and Discharge

Chemical Prediction of Groundwater Quality in parts of Owerri Imo state in South Eastern Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality in parts of  Owerri  in  Imo State was carried  out. The chemical parameters of groundwater samples from  Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze  and Avu  were  subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques  . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict  the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in  Owerri   in Imo State.  A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination.All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations  from   storm water. The results for concentration of  Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further  increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment.

This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting  of  wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended

Keywords: Chemical., Distance, Groundwater, Owerri West

Children’s Beliefs About The Concepts Of Distance, Time And Speed (Published)

The present study was designed to further systematic cross-cultural research in the area of children’s beliefs about distance, time and speed by comparing responses of elementary level students in three different countries (Canada: 150, France: 120, Morocco: 130). A pencil and paper questionnaire was used to collect these beliefs. A striking parallel between responses of students in all three countries emerged. These results are discussed in terms of contradictory findings concerning the universality or ethnocentricity of children’s beliefs about scientific phenomena

Keywords: Belief, Distance, Elementary Children, Qualitative Stydy, Speed, Time, Universality