Tag Archives: Disease

Covid-19and Education: A Case for Experiential Learning Theory (Published)

Education is a key player in addressing any social problem; it provides individuals with the necessary skills and knowledge to cope with any eventuality. Conceiving the fact that the school is a veritable tool to fixing the society in all spheres of life, including outbreak of diseases such as COVID-19, this study makes a case for Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) as an appropriate pedagogical approach so that information and facts about the disease can be brought to real life situations. Opinions and ideas on COVID-19 were obtained from secondary sources and analysed qualitatively leading to the suggestion that schools should reopen for students to leverage the opportunities which COVID-19 has presented to education.

Keywords: : Experiment, COVID-19, Disease, Learning, Teachers, distancing

Can Ebola Virus Disease Infect Domestic And Farm Animals And A Threat For Human Being Who Has Direct Contact And Consume Their Food Products?” A Review Paper (Published)

Ebola virus disease (EVD) also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe contagious disease affecting humans, non-human primates and some domestic species (e.g. pigs). While fruit bats are considered as a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. However Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% sero prevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to native pigs and macaques monkeys; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. In Africa, fruit bats are considered natural hosts and reservoirs of the Ebola virus although Ebola outbreaks have been observed in chimpanzees, gorillas, macaque monkeys and in some pigs in the Philippines and China. These latter animals, like human beings, have been considered as “accidental hosts” and not reservoirs of the Ebola virus. A fact sheet recently released by the World Health Organization (WHO) has proved helpful in this regard, revealing that the Ebola virus is transmitted to people from animals and subsequently spreads through the human population through person to person contacts. The risk of infection among humans from animals may be reduced by avoiding contact with fruit bats or monkeys etc. avoiding consumption of their raw meat and ensuring that all animal products are thoroughly cooked before consumption. Animal handlers are advised to wear gloves and other protective clothing. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.

Keywords: Disease, EBOV, EVD, Ebola, Farm Animals, Food Products, Virus

Can Ebola Virus Disease Infect Domestic and Farm Animals and AaThreat For Human Being Who Has Direct Contact And Consume Their Food Products?” (Published)

Ebola virus disease (EVD) also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe contagious disease affecting humans, non-human primates and some domestic species (e.g. pigs). While fruit bats are considered as a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. However Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% sero prevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to native pigs and macaques monkeys; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. In Africa, fruit bats are considered natural hosts and reservoirs of the Ebola virus although Ebola outbreaks have been observed in chimpanzees, gorillas, macaque monkeys and in some pigs in the Philippines and China. These latter animals, like human beings, have been considered as “accidental hosts” and not reservoirs of the Ebola virus. A fact sheet recently released by the World Health Organization (WHO) has proved helpful in this regard, revealing that the Ebola virus is transmitted to people from animals and subsequently spreads through the human population through person to person contacts. The risk of infection among humans from animals may be reduced by avoiding contact with fruit bats or monkeys etc. avoiding consumption of their raw meat and ensuring that all animal products are thoroughly cooked before consumption. Animal handlers are advised to wear gloves and other protective clothing. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.

Keywords: Disease, Ebola, Farm Animals Human Food Products, Virus