Tag Archives: Discrimination

Class Discrimination under the Impact of Transgression in ‘The White Tiger’ By Aravind Adiga (Published)

This further study on Aravind Adiga’s “The White Tiger” pivots round the class discrimination that hints the transgression of the protagonist, Balram Halwai, as well as his corrupted masters. It robustly delineates on the protagonist who was brought up in a remote village of Bihar that is often called as the ‘Darkness’ -a place without the light of educations and modern privileges. Balram narrates the ‘ins and outs’ of his adventurous life through a letter to a foreign luminary- Wen Jiabao, the Chinese Prime-Minister, on his stopover to Bangalore as an official task that upholds the facts of poverty, the evil of the feudal landlords and the miseries of the subaltern people of India. Adiga’s approach to picture the 20th Century India, has successfully been put into practice by the paroxysms of social injuries in several corners.

Keywords: Cast, Discrimination, Entrepreneurship, Poverty, Transgression, Vicissitude

Psychosocial Perspectives of Stigmatization and Discrimination of Persons Living With HIV and AIDS: The Case of Winneba Municipal Hospital (Published)

The study explored the psychosocial perspectives of stigmatization and discrimination of Persons Living with HIV (PLWHA) in the Effutu Municipality with Winneba Municipal Hospital in focus. The research design employed was the descriptive survey using the explanatory mixed method approach which utilized questionnaire and interview as the research instruments for data collection. Two (2) research questions and two (2) hypotheses guided the study. Fifty-three (53) participants comprising fifty-one (51) PLWHA and two (2) HIV counsellors were sampled using the convenience, purposive, and snowball sampling techniques. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics (t-test & regression) to test the hypotheses while the qualitative data were analysed thematically with verbatim quotations from participants to support issues as they emerged. The study revealed that stigmatization and discrimination against PLWHA are not significant even though there was evidence of their existence in the areas of employment and workplace, community contexts, family contexts, and access to healthcare. It was, therefore recommended that the local authorities together with the District Ghana AIDS Commission should strengthen the awareness creation on the need for harmonious living with PLWHA in the community and the District Ministry of Health should employ more health personnel to engage in follow up services to PLWHA patients.

Keywords: Discrimination, HIV/AIDS, Psychosocial, Stigmatization

Prevention of Discrimination and Violence in Grassroot Sport in School and Sports Clubs (Published)

The purpose of the study is to clarify the various national contexts and characteristics in the manifestations of violence, racism and discrimination in grassroots sport in schools and sport clubs. It aims to identify good practices and innovative approaches that are applied at regional, national and international levels that will help the PE teachers end coaches to deal effectively with violence, racism, lack of tolerance. The research was conducted during June – September 2015 through a focus-group discussion and interview with key experts in physical education and sport. The interviews outline that the poverty and other kinds of differences like the ethnicity, race and culture are risky factors provoking discrimination in sport should be approbated. In summary, the needs of the teachers and the coaches refer to possibilities and conditions to have institutional mechanisms, which can provide them professional support, and cooperative social measures for dealing with discrimination.

Keywords: Coaches, Discrimination, Grassroots sports, PE teachers, School, Violence

Prevention of Discrimination and Violence in Grassroot Sport in School and Sports Clubs (Published)

The purpose of the study is to clarify the various national contexts and characteristics in the manifestations of violence, racism and discrimination in grassroots sport in schools and sport clubs. It aims to identify good practices and innovative approaches that are applied at regional, national and international levels that will help the PE teachers end coaches to deal effectively with violence, racism, lack of tolerance. The research was conducted during June September 2015 through a focus-group discussion and interview with key experts in physical education and sport. The interviews outline that the poverty and other kinds of differences like the ethnicity, race and culture are risky factors provoking discrimination in sport should be approbated. In summary, the needs of the teachers and the coaches refer to possibilities and conditions to have institutional mechanisms, which can provide them professional support, and cooperative social measures for dealing with discrimination.

Keywords: Coaches, Discrimination, Grassroots sports, PE teachers, School, Violence

Discrimination against Islamic Women (Published)

Muslim women still encounter discrimination in various domains of their daily life represented by religious teachings such as their right to choose husband, clothing, education and so on. Islamic religion continues to be used as an excuse for such acts of discrimination against Muslim women

Keywords: Discrimination, Islamic Teachings Against Women, Muslim Culture, Muslim Women, Women Rights

A Critical Analysis of Employment Law (Published)

This paper scrutinizes a simple outline of Employment rights, related disputes and liabilities under UK Employment law. In the terms of rational modification, it amalgamates basic rights, duties, work activities and limitation in workplace. In response of opinion, it exposes gender discrimination, and equal payments discriminates. This papers categorizes termination of work, unlawful and unfair dismissal during contract of service. Similarly, it refers rare legal dispute amongst the parties, where it establishes the factual backgrounds and responsibilities default parties. The paper argues about employment protection rights and data protection right during service of contract and near future. This papers concludes on the outlook of regulations of investigatory power which can stop and protect crimes.

Keywords: Discrimination, Legal Dispute, UK Employment Law., liability, work rights

GENDER DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PAKISTANI WOMEN IN “BOL”; A STUDY OF CLASH BETWEEN CULTURE AND RELIGION. (Published)

This paper aims to study the issue of gender discrimination against Pakistani women presented in a film Bol directed by Mansoor. Feminist theory is used as major theoretical framework for the present research. The discourse is analyzed through qualitative method and descriptive analysis. Kristeva’s feministic assumptions regarding ‘Gender Discrimination’ are implied in theoretical background. Her notion of abjection as an explanation for oppression and discrimination helps to shed light on the oppression and subordination of women and man chauvinism which is strictly prohibited in Islam. Moreover this paper will discuss about the psychological and sexual violence.

Keywords: Discrimination, Feminism, Islam, Violence, oppression.

EFFECTS OF GENDER BASED DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES ON POVERTY REDUCTIONAND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN NGOR –OKPALA AREA OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

This study assessed the effect of gender-based discriminatory practices on poverty reduction and women empowerment in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria One hundred and twenty (120) female respondents were randomly selected from twelve communities, ten respondents from each of the twelve communities. Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and mean. The results showed that most of the respondents were 51-60years of age and majority of the women were married and mostly secondary school leavers who had farming as their major occupation. The result showed that women are being discriminated upon in decision making, education, inheritance (land), in employment and some of these discriminations are caused by cultural and religious laws which restrict women from fully utilizing their potentials. The result also showed that discrimination of women leads to increased poverty level and psychological effect such as low self esteem and lack of confidence, subsequently affecting poverty reduction and women empowerment negatively. Based on the major findings, the following recommendations were made. Cultural and religious laws should be restructured to suit modern day society, equal educational opportunities should be provided to women, and skill training facilities should be provided to empower women. Also, Government should formulate policies that allows for equal right in inheritance especially land. Women should be given equal right and power in decision making, equal opportunities for women to participate in Various Societal Activities.

Keywords: Discrimination, Education, Empowerment, Gender, Poverty

PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL LIVES OF CAREER WOMEN: STRIKING THE BALANCE (Published)

This research work sought to examine the job demands of women. It sought to analyze the work-life balance of women in selected business entities in Ghana. A quantitative method was employed and data were collected using questionnaires. In all the three firms, 150 questionnaires were distributed but only 100 responses were used for the analysis because some were incomplete. The questionnaires were administered to employees in the banking and insurance sector comprising of those in managerial and non-managerial positions. With the support of statistical tools (crosstabs and chi square) the data was analyzed. The findings suggest that increases in the employment rates and relative earnings of women have increased the opportunity costs of child care and domestic responsibilities which were common to womanhood some years back. It was observed that all the women who worked for more than 8 hours were experiencing work-family conflicts.

Keywords: Behaviour, Career, Discrimination, Entrepreneurship, Human resource

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION (Published)

The historical and sociological literature portrays the agony of African Americans who have been and are still victimized by discrimination in the workplace. They particularly face a series of unique problems from the policies and the practices of the organizations or from the actions of the individuals. African American women and several minorities were not allowed to participate in most of the desirable jobs and institutions for decades. Even though this is declared unconstitutional, the discrimination against women and minority groups often persisted. But some work organizations are making progress in their efforts to fight against discrimination. Problems are imposed on the African Americans through the complex interactions of racially motivated negative attitudes. They face employment process biases, push into minority positions, lack of access to network and mentors, difficulties in advancement and promotion, and psychological and emotional maltreatment. For African American males especially, employment discrimination patterns are found. For them, employment had become tough in many sectors from 1970’s to 1990’s, as per Burstein (1985). Studies have found that college- educated African Americans have more difficulty than their Caucasian counterparts in securing employment. Discrimination and stereotypes in education discouraged many from obtaining credentials and skills to get good jobs; the higher the position, the higher the level of discrimination against the African Americans. The employers believed that young African American men were lazy, did not want to work, were immoral, and were not as smart as Caucasian youth. Even if they were employed by chance, they did not receive enough organizational support, had less intrinsic authority, and did not have proper channels of communication and less opportunities of promotion.

Women have to encounter both sexual and racial harassment in the workplace, which involved verbal abuse, epithets, threats, slurs, derogatory comments and unwelcome remarks. This compels them to leave a workplace culture they perceived to be negative and oppressive. They respond to workplace discrimination and racial harassment with anger, rage, hostility, resentment, bitterness and aggression. They often have to face the displacement of feelings of frustration of their husbands. North America’s history of discrimination against African Americans suggests that justice demands effective policies to protect them from human right abuses. Continuation of discrimination and inequalities in work organizations perpetuate a system of injustice and social stratification characterized by imbalance of power and resources. This is a reality of economic, political and social constraint. There is a need for understanding African American experiences in the workplace. The research is essentially an overview of major African American workplace problems that needs to be addressed for an inclusive and diverse workplace. The research will address (a) organizational, individual and structural sources of African American discrimination in the workplace; (b) workplace discrimination, the Affirmative Action controversy, racism and human rights violations of African Americans; and (c) organizational and governmental strategies in response to workplace discriminatory practices.

Keywords: African Americans, Discrimination, Workplace

Effects of Gender based Discriminatory Practices on Poverty Reduction and Women Empowerment in Ngor –Okpala Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study  assessed the effect of gender-based discriminatory practices on poverty reduction and women empowerment in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria One hundred and twenty (120) female respondents were randomly selected from twelve communities, ten respondents from each of the twelve communities. Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and mean. The results showed that most of the respondents were 51-60years of age and majority of the women were married and mostly secondary school leavers who had farming as their major occupation. The result showed that women are being discriminated upon in decision making, education, inheritance (land), in employment and some of these discriminations are caused by cultural and religious laws which restrict women from fully utilizing their potentials. The result also showed that discrimination of women leads to increased poverty level and psychological effect such as low self esteem and lack of confidence, subsequently affecting poverty reduction and women empowerment negatively. Based on the major findings, the following recommendations were made. Cultural and religious laws should be restructured to suit modern day society, equal educational opportunities should be provided to women, and skill training facilities should be provided to empower women. Also, Government should formulate policies that allows for equal right in inheritance especially land. Women should be given equal right and power in decision making, equal opportunities for women to participate in various societal activities

Keywords: Discrimination, Education, Empowerment, Gender, Poverty

The Perception of Characteristics, Behaviors, Cultures And Traditions Toward Own and Other Ethnic Groups (Published)

Malaysia is a country famously known for its multiple unique cultural and ethnic diversities, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak. The state of Sabah consists of 35 ethnics and 215 sub-ethnics and each ethnicity can be identified by language, dialect or culture. Despite the diversity of culture, customs and beliefs, respectively, Sabah is generally perceived and reported by the mass media to still be able to stand as a harmonious state without the presence of the issues that may affect national unity. However, if there is an attitude of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination among ethnic, it may seriously affect the solidarity between people in Sabah. Thus, this study aims to explore the concept of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination among ethnic groups in Sabah by studying on how certain ethnic groups perceive their own ethnicity and of other ethnic groups. The respondents of this study are from 36 members of ethnic association which representing four groups of different ethnics in Sabah, Malaysia: Kadazandusun, Bajau, Chinese and Murut. These four groups of ethnic are the major ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. This study is a qualitative study that using in-dept interview and focus group discussion method to collect the data. The results were discussed further in the text.

Keywords: Discrimination, Ethnic, Perception, Prejudice, Stereotype