This paper reviews skills teaching in ESL classroom which can be discrete or integrated. It includes a brief history of discrete skills teaching according to different methods of English language teaching, and the shift towards integrated approach in more recent years. The researcher also analyses the classroom implications of discrete and integrated skills teaching in order to find out which one is more successful in ESL classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this article is firstly, to evaluate the methodological approaches towards skills teaching; secondly,to explore discrete skills approach in class; thirdly, to analyse integration of skills to make a learner a competent user of language; and finally, to propose the various ways of integration and recommend the teachers for the successful development of the integration of language skills
The Effect of Holistic and Discrete Tasks on English Writing Performance of Students with Different Learning Styles (Published)
This factorial experimental study investigated the effect of tasks (holistic dan discret) and learning styles (visual, auditory, dan kinaesthetic) on students’ English Writing Performance (EWP). The experiment applied factorial design 2×3 with amount of sample 150 students taken randomly stratified from three junior high schools at Buton Regency, Indonesian during school-year 2014/2015. The research hypotheses were tested using two ways of analysis of variance and continued with Tuckey test. The results of the research revealed that: (1) EWP of students given holistic tasks was higher than EWP of students given discrete tasks; (2) statistically, there was no significant difference on EWP of visual students, auditory students, and kinaesthetic students; (3) there was any interaction effect on giving tasks and learning styles on students’ EWP; (4) visual students given holistic tasks reached higher EWP than those given discrete tasks; (5) auditory students given discrete tasks attained higher EWP than those given holistic tasks; and (6) kinaesthetic students given holistic tasks achieved higher EWP than those given discrete tasks.
Statistical Model of Road Traffic Crashes Data in Anambra State, Nigeria: A Poisson Regression Approach (Published)
Road traffic crashes are count (discrete) in nature. When modeling discrete data for characteristics and prediction of events, it is appropriate using the Poisson Regression Model. However, the condition that the mean and variance of the Poisson are equal, poses a great constraint, hence necessitating the use of the Generalized Poisson Regression (GPR) and the Negative Binomial Regression (NBR) models, which do not require these constraints that the mean and the variance be equal, as proxies. Data on Road traffic crashes from the Anambra State Command of the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Nigeria were analyzed using these three methods, the results from the two proxies are compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with GPR showing an AIC value of 3508.595 and the NBR showing an AIC value of 2742. Having shown a smaller AIC value, the NBR was considered a better model when analyzing road traffic crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria.